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Derivative Works In Social Media 2
DERIVATIVE WORKS IN SOCIAL MEDIA
Derivative Works In Social Media
Derivative works are works that are based on creative works that are in existence. Derivative works can include the translations of an original work, versions of pictures in motions, reproductions of arts, among others (Workman, 2014 111). In addition to these, derivative works could be based on the production of new editions of an existing work of creativity. Included could also consist of elaborations, annotations and other modifications of original work as well. According to the U.S. Copyright Office, for a derivative work to be it needs to incorporate part of or the whole of the original work as well as make a new addition of non-existing authorship that is copyrightable (Zafarani and Liu, 2013 49).
Many types of creative works that lie under the classification of derivative works. Parody works one example of derivative works that tends to take up a strong classification of a derivative work (Chen 2013 56). Preexisting work compilation and those of data could also be classified as copyrightable if they are coordinated, arranged in a way that results it to constitute a totally new work. Derivative works however legal may face restrictions at some point. Copyrights are at times used to restrict the creation as well as existence of derivative works (Traynor Hodson and Wilkes, 2016 106). Copyright works on the other hand is used to refer to forms of protection that are offered to creators or rather authors of creative works. Creative works in such a sense could include literature, dramatic creations, art works among other intellectual creations (Peters et al 2013 281). Derivative works however, still outstand in social media and take their place fully to attract a meaningful level of attention from the public especially towards works of parody creation.
According to Tobias (2013:27), a derivative work can be classified as one that possesses an expression creation that revolves around primary copyright-protected elements of the initial, previously created underlying work (Merolli Gray and Martin-Sanchez 2013 957). In this case, the derivative work in the process becomes a second material that is independent from the original work. Additionally, the transformation, adaptation or modification of the work must be substantial and in the process contain the personality of the original author hence making it to be copyright-protected. Moreover, most legal systems in most countries try as much as possible to guard and protect the derivative and original works. As a result, they always ensure that the authors of the original piece have the right to control or impede their integrity as well as their interests commercially (Williams et al., 3926). As much as Satire and parody are one of the few elements of social media that have been employed by so many artists for a number of centuries now as an avenue of making critical social comments, there are other countries such as new Zealand that have introduced satire and parody elements as late as 2006.In other words, the introduction of the internet has modified the manner in which individuals interact, communicate, contribute material to the cultural and social spheres (Gritzalis et al.,2014 283) Additionally, affordable internet software and gadgets that ensure that it is easier and cheep to configure and in the process make copies of any digital communication media has in the process made it easier for individuals to establish a production where distribution and publication of artistic works has become more easier (Baym 2013 57). In simple terms, internet devices that are affordable in form of textual quotation, critique and remix are some of the protected ways in which artistic expressions are presented basically because of the strict copyright legal elements response to the ever present text-long copying technology that can be attributed to aspects such as the printing press.
Origin of Parody
The Origin of Parody can be traced to the Greek literature where there existed a poem of a narrative nature and that imitated the style as well as the prosody of the respective epics but at the same time treating mock heroic, light and satirical subjects. As Aristotle states, Hegemon of Thasos can be claimed to be the core inventor of the art of parody. He introduced a parody that engaged in the process of altering the wording in widely recognized poems slightly such that he would create a ridiculous out of the sublime (Rahimi 2015 267). Parody acted as the basis of old comedy as everything would be made fun of, even the gods. In the Greek parody, Heracles who originally was viewed as a hero-turned-god is portrayed to be a Glutton while Dionysus, the Drama god is presented to be unintelligent as well as a coward. The underworld trip was then parodied and Dionysus is presented having dressed as Heracles attempting to get to the underworld so he could have back a poet who would save Athens (Erickson Kretschmer and Mendis 2013 46). Writers of the roman society presented parody as an imitation of a poet by another to bring out a humorous effect. Ancient Greeks also came up with satyr plays to parody tragic ones with their performers dressed as satyrs.
Nature of Parody Work
Parody could be defined as a work that is established to play the role of imitation, making fun of, or to comment on an original creation. Parody may be directed on an original creative creation, a subject of the creation, its style, author, or other included targets related to the work. The functionality of parody is basically based on its imitation that is ironic as well as satiric. As stated by Hutcheon, a literary theorist, parody can be said to be an imitation that does not always exist in the expense of the creation that is parodied (Campbell and Durden, 2015 78). Parody can also be said to be a clearer certain of a given intellectual creation and that gives its genuine views on the respective work.
Like any other field of creation, parody also has critics who tend to oppose the practice. Critics hold on to the beliefs that parody is either illegal, irrelevant or a violation of the efforts of the creators of the original works that are exposed to the actions of parody (Grinvald 2015 4). Critics who stand their ground like Dentith, tend to explain the act of parodying an original creation work as comparing to other cultural practices that only provide polemical as well as allusive imitation of other existing cultural productions and practices as well. On the basis of such criticism parody can be dismissed as a mere effort of taking up credit that belongs to another person as one’s own achievement.
Additionally as presented by Grinvald (2015:4) , he claims that parody appears to be more of a flourisher on the territory that lies in between making an own composition in a technique that belongs to another creator of intellectual works with no intends that are close to being satirical. He additionally defines it to be a way of fooling around with materials that contain high literature and tends to adapt it to levels that are lower to the ones that it originally acquires in its unaltered form. In such a contest therefore, parody can be said to lower the level at which original works rate themselves in the society as well as in their respective industry or class. Lowering the acquired rate of honor is unfair to the original creations which calls to a stop on parodies, or rather increased carefulness when creating parodies to avoid making the original intellectual creation less useful and preferred than it would be without parody.
Jones Forsythe and Kemp, (2015:56) as well makes an effort to distinguish parody from the term burlesque. Burlesque is used to refer to musical, literature or dramatic creations that are aimed at making humor by making a comically exaggerated representation of the spirit of original and serious creations. It can also be used to cater for the laughable treatment of the subjects of the creation (Elwood 2015 78). As a word, burlesque can originally mean a joke, mockery or ridicule. Grinvald 2015: 29 tries to distinguish parody as an intellectual creation from the claims of it being burlesque. He makes a start of the effort by defining a good parody as one which can be discovered to be a fine merriment that is able to amuse as well as instruct some highly sensible and refined minds. He further defined burlesque as a dreary buffoonery that can please only those people who listen to it at the moment it is presented.
Parody and the Social Media
Social media is one of the most used types of interaction platforms existing in the world in the current century. The widespread access as well as use of computers, phones and other electronic devices has recently increased the use of internet services and also the rate of interaction between people (Grinvald 2015 79). Social media can be referred to as computer aided technologies that enable the creation and circulation of information and expressions through networks and virtual communities. Social media does not choose or filter the type of informational content that can be transmitted through it (Schmidt, 2014 90). It has therefore been one of the biggest origin as well as the receiver and sharing point of parodies. The wide existence of funny memes on social media is an example of the same broad existence of parodies in social media.
Social media highly provides users the ability as well as the freedom to generate and share their own intellectual creations in terms of text, sounds, and videos among others through social media. Widespread networks of social media also enable the increased rate of content availability, share and transfer through the media (Grinvald 2015 29). Different users are brought together by social media and makes them have one thing in common in that they share a specific network. What one person shares through the network is then made available to his/her fellow users through their respective accounts.
Parody spreads over social media in the same way all the other creations do. Parody creations can also be traded over the social media platforms through download options. People responsible for parody creations could earn their credit by attaining the copyright to their intellectual work if they feel the importance to (Grinvald 2015 39). On the other hand, parody creations are speeded up by the ability of social media platforms to provide users the commenting service. Through the service, social network users can comment on the information they view on the platform. As a result of the provision, many users tend to make fun of people’s creations, encourage them as well as make genuine and useful comments that could help them improve their works. Parody creations are hence generated in the process of social media interactions with and as well without intentions of generating it (Grinvald 2015 49).
A number of events as well as actions over the social media can be termed as works of parody. One of the most common parody creations in the social media is the practice of editing original pictures and attaching humorous text to it. Pictures that mean specific and important things are painted to present a joke or a criticism for a specific thing as well. Text that is available over the social media as well as well as that which is said by people is used in a way that makes it a great joke (Negri, 2015 45). The words criticizing the act of drinking is for instance used in a way that alcohol is termed to as an enemy. On the contrary, Jesus is said to state that people should love their enemies. A combination of the contradiction is presented in a funny way that can make a person laugh more than it can make them view the text as supporting drinking.
Songs and original audio creations like statements in a speech could as well be exposed to parody. A number of people like comedians could achieve to make parody creation on artists’ original songs as well as the statements of specific persons (Gurney and Payne, 2016 78). Besides making original parody creations, technology also allows individuals to replace the words of a given song or to edit the utterances of people to suit their own intentions. In the process, the technology enables them to make parody creations (Schmidt, 2014 90). Video creations like movies and clips to songs and other items could also be used to create parodies. To achieve parody in videos, people could alter the words that certain people say, or change the characters of a given video to cartoons or other people who when appearing in the setting make it funny other than sensible as the original work did.
Role and Impact of Parody in Social Media
As seen earlier, parody besides the other functions placed on it by critics and supporters can be said to mainly play the role of creating humor in original works that are not exactly humorous (Grinvald, 2014). However the marginal roles it performs cannot be ignored as they also affect the users of social media, as well as the social media itself in a way. Users of social media are affected by works of parodies in that they are exposed to the content of different works of parody, triggering their respective reactions (Berger, 2013 59). Some people may not like the result of the parodied work or the effect of the work on the original creation that was parodied. Such occasions result to negative attitudes towards parodies and one may discontinue their access to the given social media site or network (Shin 2016 252). In other cases, one may come across an interesting parody, or hear of one which triggers or increases their interest for a given social media networks or site.
Social media on the other hand experiences an increase in the number of users as well as an increase in the frequency of access by the existing users. When there is a new parody uploaded using a certain social media network, it is sure to attract the users of the network that are interested in the parody (Grinvald 2015 29). In other cases when the parody available does not interest many of the users in the network, it would obviously result to a decreased level of access by the people (Milne 2013 193). However, parody generally has a sense of humor which attracts users to the platform increasing the level of access to a given social media network. It provides a sense of humor, triggers creativity from users and as well provides people with a deeper understanding of the original works (Rosenthal Kwall. Oxford University Press, New York, 2015 1118)
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