Please prepare a response to each of the attached documents for total of 4 responses. The responses need to be at least 150 words each. The responses should be as if you are talking directly to the person.
Due in 24 hrs.
Week 1 Development of Security in the United States
Q: Describe how security services have evolved?
A: Security has evolved in the past by different encounters to all parts of the world. This week reading provided information that explained how some of the first forms of security was the caveman and the idea being stones in their caves and how they acted as a security net for personal safety. Different parts of the world have been experiencing security events for many years. Different security events such as Pearl Harbor, 9/11, and the Las Vegas shooting have brought implementations of how to heighten our state of awareness to prepare with reaction to possible future events. Training is provided yearly in all aspects of threat probabilities with past scenario interactions. There is never a way to really know an exact location or time of future events, but little things are taught to see signs of what an incident may look like before it happens.
Q: What are the basic differences between private security and law enforcement when it comes to an arrest?
A: Private security does not have the jurisdiction to do a legal arrest but can assist with a citizen’s arrest in certain circumstances. Law enforcement have the ability to do all arrest in the area that they are residing in and qualified to do so. All states have different laws when it pertains to exact rights of the private security as well as law enforcement officers. In Texas it seems that arrest can be made for the city you work for but traffic stops outside of your jurisdiction are not warranted. In saying that, any type of felony acts or breaches of the peace can be acted upon as a law enforcement officer. Private security seems to have less authority but can still be a very valuable asset to the protection of individuals or places.
Q: What are several functions that fall under the umbrella of security?
A: Some of the functions that fall under the umbrella of security include things like personal security, cyber security, as well as terroristic threats and active shooters. All of these topics are areas of concern when discussing a plan of action of response to these types of events. In my opinion, past events provide us with so much knowledge of how to react to these events and we have learned from them in many different ways. The training provided for us to learn is from information gathered of past occurrences that we have dealt with. Understanding how we can effectively react to these events is a crucial step in how we can learn to plan better for security actions.
Describe how security services have evolved?
Security has definitely evolved and has always been crucial for the protection for the protection of property and land. However, security has advanced quite a bit since lock and key, especially taking into consideration how progressive technology has become. For instance, RFID badges are being used for entry into buildings for employees, enhanced video surveillance, fingerprint scanning, IRIS recognition, facial recognition technology, perimeter systems and that is to just name a few (Hatchimonji, 2021).
What are the basic differences between private security and law enforcement when it comes to an arrest?
A private security officer can make an arrest, however, it is considered an "citizen's arrest", but they must call law enforcement to handle the arrest or to handle the crime. Which private security typically deals more with civil matters than crime matters. Law enforcement on the other hand follow several guidelines when performing an arrest and have to be strict and sensitive to any legal ramifications.
What are several functions that fall under the umbrella of security?
There are several functions that full under security. Physical deterrence, such as mantraps, barriers, walls. access control systems, surveillance cameras, etc. There can also be alarms set to trigger certain events. Another function would be the use of security personnel with varying responsibilities.
McCrie, R. D., (2007). Security operations management. Elsevier Science & Technology.
The research topic I will be presenting for this class asks the question; How important is it to protect your information and reduce your digital footprint? This topic became a special interest item for me over the last year. I was like most Americans who knew that protecting your online profile was s good thing but never understood just how deep the rabbit hole went.
I want to ensure that this topic’s perspective is different from Ryan’s. My focused goal is to provide a graphical representation and timeline associated with an individual’s personal recovery from identity theft. Based on those metrics, the observational approach will continue with surveyed accounts of victims that have already been published. The more we move online each decade only provides further emphasis on Personal Identifiable Information (PII) protection standards and keeping your online profile outside of the Publicly Available Information (PAI) sphere.
Topic 1: Protecting yourself.
Why is this important?
I chose this topic for a number of reasons. Primarily this is to inform the average citizen understands just how easy it is for their online life to become a profile for someone to target. PII such as social security numbers, driver’s license numbers, credit card numbers and medical records are largely at the forefront of personnel security, but does the average researcher understand that even the research they are conducting for school can be monitored/tracked? Grey literature is the term that encompasses all of the unpublished publications that institutions use to prevent plagiarism. Turnit databases are just as susceptible to monitoring as everything else.
Topic 2: Identity theft.
Unauthorized access to online information leads to someone seeking to masquerade as you for profit. This can be as simple credit card fraudulent charges to destroying your credit history or even defaulting on loans in your name. Regardless on what type of identity theft, this could potentially take years to recover from.
Who to turn to?
Topic 3: Business data breeches & protecting your PII.
The United States has mandated your protection through federal laws and the US Privacy Act of 1974. All businesses are required to secure personal identifiers and document all risks through programs such as the medical industry’s Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), consumer financial market’s Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA), and the ongoing online regulation disputes with social media. This regulation ensures the companies themselves strive to protect your information or be fined by the government, but this does not stop the motivated offenders. As on early October, there have been 1,291 breaches with some of the major leaks effecting millions of Americans in one breech. Compared to the some 1,108 in 2020. What is worse is these are only the discovered breeches.
What are some of the recent/biggest data leaks?
– Astoria Company
– Yahoo email intrusion
Arata, M. J. (2004). Preventing identity theft for dummies. Wiley.
Collins, J. M. (2005). Preventing identity theft in your business how to protect your business, customers, and employees (1st edition). Wiley.
JOHN C. BAKER, BETH E. LACHMAN, DAVID R. FRELINGER, KEVIN M. O’CONNELL, ALEXANDER C. HOU, MICHAEL S. TSENG, DAVID ORLETSKY, & CHARLES YOST. (2004). An Analytical Framework for Assessing the Homeland Security Implications of Publicly Accessible Geospatial Information. In Mapping the Risks (1st ed., p. 93–). RAND Corporation. https://doi.org/10.7249/mg142nga.14
Hello Dr. Aguiar and Classmates,
For this week’s forum we were asked to identify three specific research topics and examine their viability as a capstone project. For my three topics I decided to spread the options across the private and public security industry.
TOPIC 1: The positive and negative effectives of the implementation of CPTED at public schools.
For this topic, I feel it is a viable subject for security management, primarily for the reason of how vulnerable our nation’s schools have become. CPTED is a vital part of deterrence, and when it pertains to schools, it is an essential way to camouflage “protection measures.” The capstone project would answer questions of why CPTED is necessary for a post 9-11 environment. One of the negative factors I would highlight is how CPTED makes the learning environment less “welcoming” or “child friendly.” For the analytical aspect, I would use the data collected for the Department of Education and Department of Homeland Security. In previous research that I have done, I have found many studies that show indisputable evidence on why public school CPTED is beneficial. For example, CPTED improves deterrence, denies unauthorized entry, and improves the overall emergency services response time. Furthermore, I would compare case studies from Columbine High School and schools that have successful emergency responses.
Vagi, K. J., Stevens, M. R., Simon, T. R., Basile, K. C., Carter, S. P., & Carter, S. L. (2018). Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) characteristics associated with violence and safety in middle schools. Journal of school health, 88(4), 296-305.
Wenzel, R. L. (2007). CPTED: Interpreting contemporary security practices in the era of homeland security. The University of Texas at Arlington.
TOPIC 2: The essential need for U.S. maritime port security and the importance of compatibility between private/government security functions.
After the 9-11 terrorist attacks, the United States shifted gear into focusing on securing the port of maritime entry. This topic would highlight the importance of vigorous upgrades of screening, logging, and validating cargo. An NPR.org source states that there are 15 major maritime ports located around the United States. The economic function of the United States relies heavily on the security of these ports, and each port has a unique, comprehensive security plan (CSP). Research shows the United States Coast Guard is the primary security function within the waterways of the ports, and contracted security operation conducts the screening of cargo. This is a viable capstone topic because it will show how Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) and integrated defense procedures detect harmful cargo entering the United States. Furthermore, I would compare ports like the Port of Houston versus security at the Port of Los Angeles.
Bueger, C. (2015). What is maritime security?. Marine Policy, 53, 159-164.
Stockbruegger, J. (2021). US Strategy and the Rise of Private Maritime Security. Security Studies.
Downs, B. (2007). The maritime security risk analysis model: Applying the latest risk assessment techniques to maritime security. Proceedings of the Marine Safety & Security Council, 64(1).
TOPIC 3: The required need for adequate training from private security professionals and how integrated training with law enforcement would advance security.
The downward trend of the number of law enforcement officers compared to the increase of emergency response requires private security professionals to become more versed in their skillset. This topic would outline the need for adequately trained security professionals and why private companies hire additional security resources. Research shows when a law enforcement officer is well trained, the probability of a mishap reduces drastically. Security professionals must meet the same requirements as an LEO in order to ensure their security function is relevant. For example, Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC) teaches tactics and concepts vital in being a qualified security professional/LEO. Because of the limited amount of LEOs, security professionals are contracted as supplement functions. The growing need for companies to outsource protection help protects their assets. For example, Allied Universal is the largest employed private security organization in the United States. Allied Universal helps protect the large corporate campus and enforces policies within their contracts. It is paramount for private security professionals to be trained to the same standard as a law enforcement officer.
Nalla, M. K., & Crichlow, V. J. (2017). Have the standards for private security guards become more stringent in the post 9/11 era? An assessment of security guard regulations in the US from 1982 to 2010. Security Journal, 30(2), 523-537.
Stiernstedt, P., Button, M., Prenzler, T., & Sarre, R. (2021). The ‘three-pillars model of regulation’: a fusion of governance models for private security. Security Journal, 34(2), 247-260.
Yu, H. H. (2018). Gender and public agency hiring: An exploratory analysis of recruitment practices in federal law enforcement. Public Personnel Management, 47(3), 247-264.
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