In chapter 3, Liguori provides strategies for overcoming wellness barriers. Review content for Chapter 3, pg 53 of Ligouri, and this week's Overview to develop your focused strategies.
Writing Assignments are worth 25-35 points and consist of weekly assignments and Projects. Students must complete assignments in APA format, 7th edition, and use 3-references for 3-pages of writing. Please review the page requirements for each assignment.
Students should select 1 wellness challenge from week's Module 1 discussions and assignments. Then create 4-SMART goals, assess potential obstacles, and identify a plan for your area of wellness. Write a page 3-page plan that explores how you plan to achieve this wellness goal.
Students can add a chart or table to complement this writing assignment.
THREE PAGES THREE REFERENCES AND NO PLAGIARISM
This is an Open Educational Resource Health textbook. This book is FREE to use and adapt. Please help make this book exceptional by providing feedback. Updates will be made as necessary and recommended. If there is
information that should be added, removed, or revised please suggest edits at the following link: http://tinyurl.com/OER-health-draft
Textbook Website: https://www.introtohealthoer.com/home
Attribution: This compilation has been developed by Kelly Falcone, Professor of Kinesiology and Health at Palomar College and adapted from SUNY OER book Disease Prevention and Healthy Lifestyle by Trina DiGregorio, M.S., Adjunct Professor at Monroe Community College. Professor DiGregorio created the framework for this online textbook by adapting Contemporary Health Issues by Judy Baker, Ph.D., Dean of Foothill Global Access at Foothill College. Licenses and Attributions CC Licensed, Original
● Introduction to Health, Authored by: Kelly Falcone, EdD, Provided by: Palomar College. Located at: https://docs.google.com/document/d/1g4OYMjgg7ISQeITbqjoWIAd_f5PoXZB_JAIsoQxKfyg/edit?usp=sharing License: CC BY-SA: Attribution-ShareAlike
CC licensed content, Shared Previously ● Disease Prevention and Healthy Lifestyles. Authored by: Trina DiGregorio, M.S.. Provided by: Monroe Community College. Located at:
https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-monroecc-hed110/. License: CC BY: Attribution CC licensed content, Shared previously
● Contemporary Health Issues. Authored by: Judy Baker, Ph.D., Dean of Foothill Global Access at Foothill College. Provided by: [email protected] Located at: http://hlth21fall2012.wikispaces.com/. License: CC BY-SA: Attribution-ShareAlike
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Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction to Health and Wellness 12 Dimensions of Wellness 12
What is Wellness? 12 What are the Nine Dimensions of Wellness? 12 Your Own Views on Health and Wellness 14
Healthy People 2020 14 Major Health Concerns 15
Leading Causes of Death in the United States 15 Risk Factors and Levels of Disease Prevention 16
What is a Risk Factor? 16 Levels of Disease Prevention 17
Behavior Change and Goal Setting 18 Transtheoretical Model (Stages of Change) 18 SMART Goal Setting 19
Chapter 2: Exercise and Physical Activity 21 Health Benefits of Physical Activity 21
Begin Taking Steps to be More Physically Active Everyday 21 Control Your Weight 22 Reduce Your Risk of Cardiovascular Disease 22 Reduce Your Risk of Type 2 Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome 22 Reduce Your Risk of Some Cancers 22 Strengthen Your Bones and Muscles 23 Improve Your Mental Health and Mood 23 Improve Your Ability to do Daily Activities and Prevent Falls 23 Increase Your Chances of Living Longer 23
Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults 24 Overall Components of Physical Fitness: 24 Avoid Inactivity 24 Do Aerobic Activity 24
Aerobic Intensity: Target Heart Rate Zone 25 Taking Your Heart Rate 26 Find your Target Heart Rate Zone 27
Strengthen Muscles 27 Muscle-Strengthening Activity 27 Bone-Strengthening Activity 28
Developing a Personal Exercise Program 29 Make Physical Activity a Regular Part of the Day 30 Gradually Increase Your Level of Physical Activity 31
Warm-up and Cool-down 31 Ways to Get Moving 31 Achieving Target Levels of Physical Activity 32
Chapter 3: Nutrition 33
Nutrition Basics 33 What is your food made of? 33
Energy of Food 33 Protein 33 Carbohydrates 33 Fats 34 Vitamins 35 Minerals 35 Water 35 What are Antioxidants? 36
Dietary Guidelines for Americans 36 Key Recommendations: Components of Healthy Eating Patterns 37 Implementation of the Dietary Guidelines Through Using MyPlate 38
Click here to compare MyPlate to the Harvard Healthy Eating Plate. 38 Choose Nutrient Dense Foods! 39
Disease Risk and Nutrition 39 Nutrition and Health Are Closely Related 39 Type 2 Diabetes 39 What is prediabetes? 40 What are the signs and symptoms of diabetes? 40
Nutrition Facts Label 41 Changes to the Nutrition Facts Label 41 Highlights of the Final Nutrition Facts Label 42 Compliance Date 44
Organic Foods 44 Organic 101: What the USDA Organic Label Means 44
Chapter 4: Weight Management 46 Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity 46
Overweight and Obesity in the United States 46 Worldwide Obesity Statistics from the World Health Organization 46 Causes and Health Consequences of Overweight and Obesity 47
Balancing Calories 47 The Caloric Balance Equation 47 Am I in Caloric Balance? 48
Measuring Obesity 50 Body Mass Index (BMI) 50
What is BMI? 50 How is BMI used? 51 What are the BMI trends for adults in the United States? 51 Why is BMI used to measure overweight and obesity? 51 How is BMI interpreted for adults? 52 How good is BMI as an indicator of body fatness? 52 If an athlete or other person with a lot of muscle has a BMI over 25, is that person still considered to be overweight? 53
Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity 53
Chapter 5: Stress Management 55 Stress Overview 55
What is stress? 55 How does stress affect the body? 55 How does stress affect your overall health? 56 How can I cope with stress? 56 Key Takeaway 57
Yerkes-Dodson Law 57 Optimal Levels of Arousal (i.e. Stress) 57
The Stress Response 58 General Adaptation Syndrome 59
Health Effects of Stress 60 What are the most common causes of stress? 60 What are some common signs of stress? 61 Can stress affect my health? 61
Managing Stress 62 How can I help handle my stress? 62 What Are Relaxation Techniques? 63
What Is Meditation? 63 What the Science Says About the Effectiveness of Meditation 63
Chapter 6: Emotional & Mental Health 64 Mental Health Overview 64
What Is Mental Health? 64 Early Warning Signs 64 Mental Health and Wellness 65
Psychological Constructs 66 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 66
Physiological Needs 66 Safety Needs 66 Love/belonging Needs 67 Esteem 67 Self-actualization 67
Freud’s Defense Mechanisms 67 Anxiety Disorders 68
Signs and Symptoms 69 Generalized Anxiety Disorder 69 Panic Disorder 69 Social Anxiety Disorder 69
Risk Factors 70 Treatments and Therapies 70
Psychotherapy 70 Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) 70 Stress-Management Techniques 71 Medication 71
Depression 71 Signs and Symptoms 72 Risk Factors 73 Treatment and Therapies 73 Beyond Treatment: Things You Can Do 73
Suicide Prevention 74 If You Know Someone in Crisis 74 Introduction 74 Signs and Symptoms 74 Risk Factors 75 Do gender and age affect suicide risk? 75 What about different racial/ethnic groups? 75 Treatments and Therapies 76 Psychotherapies 76
Eating Disorders 76 What are eating disorders? 76 What are the different types of eating disorders? 77
Anorexia nervosa 77 Bulimia nervosa 78 Binge-eating disorder 78
How are eating disorders treated? 78
Chapter 7: Alcohol & Tobacco 80 Alcohol Facts 80
What is a “drink”? 80 What is excessive drinking? 80 Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) – Differences Between Women and Men 80 What is moderate drinking? 81 Short-Term Health Risks 81 Long-Term Health Risks 81
Health Effects of Alcohol Abuse 82 Rethinking Drinking 83
Why is being able to “hold your liquor” a concern? 83 Why are women’s low-risk limits different from men’s? 83 Isn’t drinking good for the heart? 83 Is “low-risk” drinking just another term for “moderate” drinking? 83 Can I do anything to protect my liver from the effects of too much alcohol? 84 I am considering cutting down or quitting drinking. How do I begin? 84 What treatments are available for someone with an alcohol problem? 84
Tobacco Use 85 How Does Tobacco Affect the Brain? 85 Electronic Cigarettes 86
What are they? 86 Are they safe? 86 Can they help people quit smoking traditional cigarettes? 86
What Other Adverse Effects Does Tobacco Have on Health? 86 Quitting Smoking 87
What are the immediate benefits of quitting smoking? 87 What are the long-term benefits of quitting smoking? 88 Does quitting smoking lower the risk of cancer? 88 Should someone already diagnosed with cancer bother to quit smoking? 88 Are There Effective Treatments for Tobacco Addiction? 88 Behavioral Treatments 89 Nicotine Replacement Treatments 89 Other Medications 89 Current Treatment Research 89
Chapter 8: Drugs and Addiction 90 Understanding Drug Use and Addiction 90
What Is drug addiction? 90 What happens to the brain when a person takes drugs? 90 Why do some people become addicted to drugs while others don’t? 91 Can drug addiction be cured or prevented? 92 Points to Remember 92
Health Effects of Drug Abuse 93 Marijuana 93 Cocaine 94 Methamphetamine 95 CNS Depressants 95 Prescription Opioids 95 Heroin 96
Consequences of Drug Abuse 97 How it affects the family 97
Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction 98 Can drug addiction be treated? 98 Principles of Effective Treatment 98 How is drug addiction treated? 99 How are medications used in drug addiction treatment? 99 How are behavioral therapies used to treat drug addiction? 100 Points to Remember 101
Synthetic Drugs 102 Overview and History 102 A Rapidly Emerging Threat 102 Risk to the Public Health 102 Sources and Continuing Availability 103 Government Efforts to Ban Synthetic Drug Products 103
Chapter 9: Unintentional Injuries and Violence 104 Unintentional Injuries 104
Motor Vehicle Safety: Distracted Driving 104 What are the types of distraction? 104
Distracted driving activities 104 Young adult and teen drivers 105 What is being done? 105
Home and Recreational Safety 105 Falls 105 Water-Related Injuries 105 Poisoning 106 Fires 109
Intentional Injuries: Violence 110 The Social-Ecological Model: A Framework for Prevention 110
Individual 110 Relationship 110 Community 110 Societal 111
What are Social Norms? 111 Social Norms and Violence 111 Misperceptions 112
Intimate Partner Violence 112 The Four Main Types of Intimate Partner Violence 112 Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence 113
Individual Risk Factors 113 Relationship Factors 114 Community Factors 114 Societal Factors 114
Protecting Yourself from Relationship Violence 114 What is relationship violence? 115 How do I know if my relationship might become violent? 115 What if I’m not sure if my relationship is violent? 115 Take Action! 116
Chapter 10: Relationships, Sexuality, & Contraception 117 Healthy Relationships 117
Healthy vs. Unhealthy Relationships 117 Love and Attraction Theory 118
Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love 118 Effective Communication 119
Developing Effective Communication Skills 119 Three skills to Effective Communication 119
Assertiveness 119 Learning to Be More Assertive 119 Aggressive, Assertive, and Non-Assertive Behavior 120
“I” Statements vs. “You” Statements 120 Sex, Gender, and Sexuality 121
Sex 121 Male, female, and the spectrum of sex 122
Gender 122 The continuum of sex and gender 123 Cultural Variations of Gender 123
Sexuality 123 LGBT Health 123
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health 124 The Effects of Negative Attitudes and Discrimination 124 Increasing Positive Perceptions and Acceptance 125
Contraception 125 Purpose and Effectiveness of Contraceptives 125
Reversible Methods for Birth Control 126 Hormonal Methods 126 Barrier Methods 126
Permanent Methods of Birth Control 126 Highly Effective Reversible Birth Control Methods 127
Abstinence 127 IntraUterine Device (IUD), Copper IUD (ParaGard), Levonorgestrel-Releasing IUD (Mirena) 127 The Implant, Implanon 128
Moderately Effective Reversible Birth Control Methods 128 The Pill, combination pill, mini-pill 128 The Shot, Injectable contraceptives, Depo-Provera 128 The Patch, dermal (placed on the skin for absorption), Ortho Evra 128 The Ring, Hormonal Vaginal Contraceptive Ring, NuvaRing 128 Diaphragm or cervical cap 129
Least Effective Reversible Birth Control Methods 129 Male Condom 129 Female Condom 129 Fertility Awareness Method (FAM) 131 Emergency Birth Control 132
Chapter 11: Immune System, Infectious Diseases, and STD’s/STI’s 134 The Immune System 134
Common Pathogen: Influenza 136 STD’s/STI’s 137
The Relationship of STD’s and HIV 138 STD Data 138 Types of STDs/STIs 139
Chlamydia 139 Chlamydia Treatment 139
Gonorrhea 139 Gonorrhea Treatment 140
Genital Herpes 140 Genital Herpes Treatment 140
HIV/AIDS 140 HIV/AIDS Treatment 141
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 141 Human Papillomavirus Treatment 141
Syphilis 141 Syphilis Treatment 142
Bacterial Vaginosis 142 Bacterial vaginosis Treatment 142
Trichomoniasis 142 Trichomoniasis Treatment 143
Viral Hepatitis 143 Viral Hepatitis Treatment 143
STD/STI Prevention 143 Practice Abstinence 144 Use Condoms 144 Have Fewer Partners 144 Talk With Your Partner 144 Get Tested 144 Get Vaccinated 145
Chapter 12: Cardiovascular Disease 146 The Cardiovascular System 146
Heart Disease and Stroke Facts 147 Heart Disease Facts 147
Risk Factors 147 Stroke Facts 148
Common Stroke Warning Signs and Symptoms 149 Cardiovascular Diseases 150
Coronary artery disease (CAD) 150 Causes of CAD 150
Other Conditions Related to Heart Disease 151 Types of Strokes 152
Ischemic Stroke 153 Hemorrhagic Stroke 153 Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) 153
Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease 154 Metabolic Risk Factors 154
#1 A Large Waistline 154 #2 A High Triglyceride Level 154 #3 High Blood Pressure 155 #4 High Fasting Blood Sugar 155 #5 A Low HDL Cholesterol Level 155
Cholesterol Management 155 What Is Cholesterol? 155 What Is High Blood Cholesterol? 156 What Causes High Blood Cholesterol? 156 Factors You Can Control 156
Diet 156 Physical Activity and Weight 156
Factors You Can’t Control 156 Heredity 156 Age and Sex 156
How Is High Blood Cholesterol Diagnosed? 157 How Is High Blood Cholesterol Treated? 158 Lowering Cholesterol Using Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes 158
The TLC Diet 158 Weight Management 159 Physical Activity 159
Cholesterol-Lowering Medicines 159
Chapter 13: Cancer 160 Cancer Overview 161
What Is Cancer? 161 How Cancer Arises 161 When Cancer Spreads 162 Tissue Changes That Are Not Cancer 162
Types of Cancer 163 Common Cancer Types 163
Risk Factors for Cancer 164 Alcohol 165 Tobacco 166
Cancer Prevention 166 How Can Cancer Be Prevented? 166
Avoiding Tobacco 166 Protecting Your Skin 167 Limiting Alcohol Intake 167 Keeping a Healthy Weight 168
Chapter 14: Environmental Wellness- A Healthy Planet 169 The Importance of a Healthy Planet 169
What is Climate Change? 169 Global Warming 170 Evidence of Rapid Climate Change: 171
The Impact of the Environment on Public Health 171 Climate Change and Health 172
Creating a Healthier Planet 173 CDC's Building Resilience Against Climate Effects (BRACE) Framework 173 Living a Sustainable Lifestyle 174
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle 174 Reduce Water 174 Reduce Energy 175 Reduce Waste: Reuse and Recycle 175
Chapter 15: Consumer Health & Aging 178
Finding Reliable Health Information 178 Consider the source–Use recognized authorities 178 Focus on quality–All Web sites are not created equal 178 Be a cyberskeptic–Quackery abounds on the Web 179 Look for the evidence–Rely on medical research, not opinion 179 Check for currency–Look for the latest information 179 Beware of bias–What is the purpose? Who is providing the funding? 180 Protect your privacy–Health information should be confidential 180
Health Fraud 180 6 Tip-offs to Rip-offs: Don’t Fall for Health Fraud Scams 180
Not Worth the Risk 181 A Pervasive Problem 181 Health Fraud Tip-Offs 182
Quick Tips for Evaluating Health Websites 183 Criteria for evaluating information from the web: 183
Accuracy 183 Authority 183 Bias/Objectivity 183 Currency/Timeliness 183 Coverage 184
Complementary and Integrative Health 184 Complementary, Alternative, or Integrative Health: What’s In a Name? 184 Complementary Versus Alternative 184 Integrative Medicine 185
Types of Complementary Health Approaches 185 Natural Products 185 Mind and Body Practices 185 Other Complementary Health Approaches 186
Dietary Supplements 187 Federal Regulation of Dietary Supplements 187 Sources of Science-Based Information 188 Safety Considerations 188 Key Points about Supplements 189
Aging 189 Aging Data 190 Guiding Model for Healthy Aging 190 Challenges of Aging 190
Chapter 1: Introduction to Health and Wellness
Dimensions of Wellness What is Wellness?
Wellness is being in good physical and mental health. Because mental health and physical health are linked, problems in one area can impact the other. At the same time, improving your physical health can also benefit your mental health, and vice versa. It is important to make healthy choices for both your physical and mental well-being.
Remember that wellness is not just the absence of illness or stress. You can still strive for wellness even if you are experiencing these challenges in your life.
What are the Nine Dimensions of Wellness?
Learning about the Nine Dimensions of Wellness can help you choose how to make wellness a part of your everyday life. Wellness strategies are practical ways to start developing healthy habits that can have a positive impact on your physical and mental health.
The Nine Dimensions of Wellness are:
1. Emotional: Coping effectively with life and expressing emotions in an appropriate manner. 2. Environmental: Occupying pleasant, healthy, and safe environments that support well-being; positively
impacting the quality of our surroundings (including protecting and preserving nature). 3. Financial: Achieving satisfaction with current and future financial situations; handling finances wisely. 4. Intellectual: Recognizing creative abilities and finding ways to expand knowledge and skills; being
open-minded. 5. Occupational: Personal fulfillment and enrichment from one’s work and/or responsibilities. 6. Physical: Recognizing the need for physical activity, healthy foods, and adequate sleep; avoiding
unhealthy habits. 7. Social: Developing a sense of connection, belonging, and sustained support system; having positive
relationships. 8. Spiritual: Having a sense of purpose and meaning in life; establishing peace, harmony, and balance in
our lives. 9. *Cultural: The way you interact with others who are different than you; understanding and celebrating
our differences. (*recently added).
Learn more about the Eight Dimensions of Wellness (does not include Cultural wellness) by watching the video below:
Your Own Views on Health and Wellness
Reflect on the following questions:
● What does health mean to you? ● How important is health to you? ● What are some of your healthy habits? ● Which dimensions of wellness do you need to work on the most?
Licenses and Attributions
Public domain content ● Eight Dimensions of Wellness. Authored by: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration . Provided by: U.S. Department
of Health and Human Services. Located at: http://www.samhsa.gov/wellness-initiative/eight-dimensions-wellness. License: Public Domain: No Known Copyright
● Video – The Eight Dimensions of Wellness. Authored by: SAMHSA. Provided by: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Located at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tDzQdRvLAfM&feature=youtu.be. License: Public Domain: No Known Copyright
Healthy People 2020 In December 2010, the Department of Health and Human Services launched Healthy People 2020, which has four overarching goals:
● Attain high-quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death; ● Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups; ● Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all; and ● Promote quality of life, healthy development, and healthy behaviors across all life stages.
Healthy People 2020 tracks approximately 1,200 objectives organized into 42 topic areas, each of which represents an important public health area. At the time of the December 2010 launch 911 objectives were measurable with baseline data and established targets. A few objectives that have achieved high levels of success are being tracked without a target for informational purposes. Targets will be set during the decade for these objectives if warranted. The rest of the objectives did not have baseline data and were considered developmental. Targets for the developmental objectives will be set when baseline data become available. Healthy People 2020 also includes a new Foundation section which addresses several important health topics: General Health Status, Health-Related Quality of Life and Well-Being, Determinants of Health, and Disparities.
Licenses and Attributions
Public domain content ● Healthy People 2020. Authored by: CDC/National Center for Health Statistics. Provided by: U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services. Located at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/healthy_people/hp2020.htm. License: Public Domain: No Known Copyright
Major Health Concerns Leading Causes of Death in the United States Do you know what the top two leading causes of death are for Americans? Heart disease takes the number one spot, followed by cancer. As you can see by the graph below, cancer death rates have been steadily increasing throughout the years. What does this potentially mean for the future? Is cancer going to take over as the number one leading cause of death? It certainly appears to be headed in that direction.
The 10 Leading Causes of Death in the United States: 1. Heart disease: 614,348 2. Cancer: 591,699 3. Chronic lower respiratory diseases: 147,101 4. Accidents (unintentional injuries): 136,053 5. Stroke (cerebrovascular diseases): 133,103 6. Alzheimer’s disease: 93,541 7. Diabetes: 76,488 8. Influenza and Pneumonia: 55,227 9. Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis: 48,146
10. Intentional self-harm (suicide): 42,773
CDC Winnable Battles
To keep pace with emerging public health challenges and to address the leading causes of death and disability, CDC initiated an effort called Winnable Battles to achieve measurable impact quickly. Winnable Battles are public health priorities with large-scale impact on health and known effective strategies to address them. By identifying priority strategies, defining clear targets and working closely with our public health partners, we are making significant progress in reducing health disparities and the overall health burden from these diseases and conditions.
Licenses and Attributions
Public domain content ● Leading Causes of Death. Authored by: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Located at:
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/deaths.htm. License: Public Domain: No Known Copyright ● Winnable Battles. Authored by: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Located at: http://www.cdc.gov/winnablebattles/. License:
Public Domain: No Known Copyright
Risk Factors and Levels of Disease Prevention
What is a Risk Factor? Part of learning how to take charge of your health requires understanding your risk factors for different diseases. Risk fac tors are things in your life that increase your chances of getting a certain disease. Some risk factors are beyond your control. You may be born with them or exposed to them through no fault of your own.
Some risk factors that you have little or no control over include your: ● Family history of a disease ● Sex/gender — male or female ● Ancestry
Some risk factors you can control include: ● What you eat ● How much physical activity you get ● Whether you use tobacco ● How much alcohol you drink ● Whether you misuse drugs
In fact, it has been estimated that almost 35 percent of all U.S. early deaths in 2000 could have been avoided by changing just three behaviors:
● Stopping smoking ● Eating a healthy diet (for example, eating more fruits and vegetables and less red meat) ● Getting more physical activity
You can have one risk factor for a disease or you can have many. The more risk factors you have, the more likely you are to get the disease. For example, if you eat healthy, exercise on a regular basis, and control your blood pressure, your chances of getting heart disease are less than if you are diabetic, a smoker, and inactive. To lower your risks, take small steps toward engaging in a healthy lifestyle, and you’ll see big rewards.
People with a family health history of chronic disease may have the most to gain from making lifestyle changes. You can’t change your genes, but you can change behaviors that affect your health, such as smoking, inactivity, and poor eating habits. In many cases, making these changes can reduce your risk of disease even if the disease runs in your family. Another change you can make is to have screening tests, such as mammograms and colorectal cancer screening. These screening tests help detect disease early. People who have a family health history of a chronic disease may benefit the most from screening tests that look for risk factors or early signs of disease. Finding disease early, before symptoms appear, can mean better health in the long run.
Levels of Disease Prevention
Prevention includes a wide range of activities — known as “interventions” — aimed at reducing risks or threats to health. You may have heard researchers and health experts talk about three categories of prevention: primary, secondary and tertiary. What do they mean by these terms?
Primary prevention aims to prevent disease or injury before it ever occurs. This is done by preventing exposures to hazards that cause disease or injury, altering unhealthy or unsafe behaviours that can lead to disease or injury, and increasing resistance to disease or injury should exposure occur. Examples include:
● legislation and enforcement to ban or control the use of hazardous products (e.g. asbestos) or to mandate safe and healthy practices (e.g. use of seatbelts and bike helmets)
● education about healthy and safe habits (e.g. eating well, exercising regularly, not smoking) ● immunization against infectious diseases.
Secondary prevention aims to reduce the impact of a disease or injury that has already occurred. This is done by detecting and treating disease or injury as soon as possible to halt or slow its progress, encouraging personal strategies to prevent reinjury or recurrence, and implementing programs to return people to their original health and function to prevent long-term problems. Examples include:
● regular exams and screening tests to detect disease in its earliest stages (e.g. mammograms to detect breast cancer)
● daily, low-dose aspirins and/or diet and exercise programs to prevent further heart attacks or strokes ● suitably modified work so injured or ill workers can return safely to their jobs.
Tertiary prevention aims to soften the impact of an ongoing illness or injury that has lasting effects. This is done by helping people manage long-term, often-complex health problems and injuries (e.g. chronic diseases, permanent impairments) in order to improve as much as possible their ability to function, their quality of life and their life expectancy. Examples include:
● cardiac or stroke rehabilitation programs, chronic disease management programs (e.g. for diabetes, arthritis, depression, etc.)
● support groups that allow members to share strategies for living well ● vocational rehabilitation programs to retrain workers for new jobs when they have recovered as much
Licenses and Attributions
CC licensed content, Shared previously ● Disease Prevention. Authored by: Institute for Work & Health. Located at:
https://www.iwh.on.ca/wrmb/primary-secondary-and-tertiary-prevention. License: CC BY-NC-ND: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives
Public domain content ● Risk Factors. Authored by: womenshealth.gov. Provided by: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Women's Health.
Located at: https://www.womenshealth.gov/files/assets/docs/lifetime-good-health/lifetimegoodhealth-english.pdf. License: Public Domain: No Known Copyright
Behavior Change and Goal Setting Transtheoretical Model (Stages of Change) The transtheoretical model of behavior change, developed by Prochaska and DiClemente, assesses an individual’s readiness to implement a healthier behavior, and provides insight into the decision making process that leads to action. For many people, changing or modifying a behavior that is unhealthy or potentially harmful can be quite challenging. Here are the stages that lead to behavior change:
● Precontemplation (Not Ready) – You are not intending to take action in the foreseeable future, and can be unaware that your behavior is problematic
● Contemplation (Getting Ready) – You are beginning to recognize that your behavior is problematic, and start to look at the pros and cons of your continued actions
● Preparation (Ready) – You are intending to take action in the immediate future, and may begin taking small steps toward behavior change
● Action – You are making actual changes to your problem behavior by incorporating healthy choices/behaviors into your life
● Maintenance – You have been able to sustain action for at least six months and are working to prevent relapse into previous unhealthy behaviors
Check out this supplemental video to review the main concepts of …
HLF 210 Rubric 2021
Students will be graded based on assignment profile, completed task, required format, grammar and editing, complete construction and organization, and timely completion of the assignment.
· Organization of thought – Students, should complete the assignment by answering questions thoroughly and show their process for research, critical thinking in an organized layout. The assignment should be submitted in MS Word, email
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