There are four attached PowerPoint for week 2.
Read attached PowerPoint pdf and the links below for information.
Two links that are in the Regulatory Framework Rulemaking presentation, slide 21, for maintenance purposes:
View the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) Program Briefing. This presentation provides an explanation of how the ASRS Program works and what benefits are gained from collecting these data.
Examine the NTSB website for the mission and activities of the NTSB in terms of accident investigation duties and processes. Also, check out the FAA website and search for accident safety data and the FAA role in safety investigations.
Here are some other materials that may be helpful with research. You are encouraged to explore them.
AVIA Accident Investigation
What do you think is the purpose of an accident investigation? Explain and support what makes the NTSB a reactive organization in terms of accident/incident investigation (after the fact) yet, still be a proactive safety organization. How do the involuntary and voluntary reporting systems interact with aviation safety? You must include the reasons for your answer.
AVIA NTSB Party Process
Research and explain the NTSB "Party Process" and how it assists in the investigative process. Detail the limits, specifications, structure, responsibilities, and reasons behind the process.
For your paper, please cite some examples. You must have a title page and at least two references. Each assignment will use the APA format, 1-2 pages (approximately 300-words) – Quality is more important than quantity.
Criteria: Should identify and analyze issues and relationships between factors with examples; supports argument based upon solid body of evidence; should apply to real-life situations and defined, if required. Define and/or articulate a research problem. Design a course of action to solve a research problem using, as appropriate, multi-disciplinary principles. Apply ethical principles in research. Conduct research independently and/or collaboratively. Reach decisions or conclusions based on the analysis and synthesis of evidence. Communicate research results.
AVIA Atmospheric Conditions and Airspeed
What are the advantages and disadvantages of the standard Pitot Static airspeed measuring system for an aircraft? Explain your answer. Follow the standard 3 section format for each post, include an Intro, Body, and Conclusion (So a minimum of 3 paragraphs, but can be more if you have multiple Body paragraphs). Don't forget your References.
AVIA Standard Atmosphere – Airspeed
Please see attached Aerodynamic worksheet, you must show all calculations steps.
Part 1 – The first part of this module week’s assignment is to choose and research an airport of interest. This can be an airfield near you or an interesting place you always wanted to explore further. The important thing is that it should have some regular weather reporting capability, in order to enable your research.
For your research, you can utilize the official FAA Airport/Facility Directory or any suitable and available online flight planning software, such as https://www.aopa.org/destinations/ and https://skyvector.com/airports AOPA’s flight planning tool has the advantage of directly depicting current weather as well. For weather information, you can use the official National Weather Service's https://www.aviationweather.gov/metar or any other available flight planning tool. (Part 1 #9 – Density Altitude Calculator: https://wahiduddin.net/calc/calc_da_rh.htm )
Part 2 – In the second part of this module’s assignment, we will take a closer look at the speeds involved. Let’s assume the given 150 kts lift-off speed was the indicated value in the cockpit, i.e. the Indicated Airspeed [KIAS].
MGMT Homeland Security Act of 2002
Write an original post on how the Homeland Security Act of 2002 can be improved to better serve the U.S. and international travelers or write an original post on Vision 100- Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act of 2003 and how it can be better improved. Support your argument by citing other regulations and or circulars.
MGMT Airport Research Project
Airport Role – Using the information you gained in Week 1 and 2, write a paper introducing your airport. The report should be a minimum of two pages in length (not including the reference page). This first of numerous papers should serve as an introduction to your final paper. Discuss such items as the location, NPIAS classification, surrounding community, its relationship to the collocated reliever and general aviation facilities, as well as any other information you deem important, including information from the FAA Master Record and Airport Data Sheets.
Keep in mind that the final paper submitted in Week 9 must adhere to current APA style format, including the use of references and citations. Thus, it is strongly recommended that each weekly paper adheres to the same writing conventions.
MGMT Research Paper & Presentation Topic
As part of this course, you will analyze an aviation or aerospace industrial management issue related to production/operations management, write a research paper, and create a presentation to submit in Week 9.
For this assignment, considering the 10 Operations Management decisions, research and identify an issue that was caused by a failure of production/operations management. Use trade publications, published research, and the Internet to determine your issue. Submit your topic to your instructor along with the suggested title of your paper and a short overview of what you intend to research.
MGMT Gantt Charts & Network Diagrams
Scenario – Operations managers use many techniques to solve problems. Some of these techniques are graphical and can be solved using software tools and programs. You will use Excel® to solve real-life problems encountered by operations managers. How many times have you waited, not so patiently in the departure area, for your aircraft to be serviced before you board? Airport operations managers strive to achieve the shortest "turn around time" possible through a carefully choreographed process. Aircraft only make money when they are in the air. This chart provides a generalized flow for the turnaround of an aircraft. Your task is to produce a Gantt chart, draw an activity on node (AON) network diagram, and determine the critical path.
Step 1: Produce a Gantt Chart
Watch the attached video on How to make a GANTT Chart, then use Excel to produce a Gantt chart of the aircraft servicing process from the time the aircraft stops at the gate until it is ready for departure. Use this information to create your chart.
· Use the Gantt Chart project planner template to get started. In Excel, select New and then search for the planner.
· Assume that the PLAN START (earliest start time) begins as soon as the predecessor is completed.
· Set the ACTUAL START, ACTUAL DURATION, and PERCENT COMPLETE time to 0 (since we are only using this chart for planning the project).
· Once finished with your Gantt Chart copy and paste your Gantt Chart into your WordDoc as a picture and resize appropriately.
Once you have completed your Gantt chart, study it, and provide suggestions on ways to shorten the turn around time. Remember that some items must be completed before others can start (i.e., the jet bridge must be connected before you can offload the passengers and the aircraft cannot have passengers aboard when refueling). Place your suggestions underneath your Gantt Chart.
Step 2: Draw an AON Network Diagram
Watch this YouTube video to see how to draw an AON network Diagram: Use forward and backward pass to determine project duration and critical path
Create a slide to construct a diagram of activity on node (AON) network of the aircraft turnaround operation. Make sure to produce your graph as shown in the video and in your textbook (i.e. using the ES, EF, LS, LF, Act. name and duration notation).
Step 3: Determine the Critical Path
Use your AON network diagram to determine the critical path and calculate the total time of completion. Make sure to annotate the critical path and time of completion on the word doc. Once you produce the AON graph, consider what would happen if activity E Refueling/Water servicing could be reduced to 15 minutes. Write a brief statement on the changes to the critical path and time of completion.
2. Airports and Airport Systems: Organization and Administration
The objectives of this section are to educate the reader with information to:
Discuss the ownership structures of airports
Identify the various jobs that exist at airports
Understand an airport organization chart
Discuss airport management as a potential career
Understand the public relations issues that are associated with airport management
Whether privately owned or part of a public system, there are fundamental characteristics of the administrative and organizational structure of an airport. The number of people employed at a given airport can range from as few as one, at the smallest of general aviation facilities, to as many as 50,000 at the world's largest airport organizations.
Those airports that employ fewer numbers of people expect these people to accept a wider range of responsibilities. For example, an airport management employee at a small airport might be responsible for maintaining the airfield, managing finances, and maintaining good relations with the local public. At the larger airports, employees are typically given very specific responsibilities for a particular segment of airport management.
2.3. Airport Ownership and Operation
Public airports in the United States are owned and operated under a variety of organizational and jurisdictional arrangements. Usually, ownership and operation coincide: commercial airports might be owned and operated by a city, county, or state; or by more than one jurisdiction (a city and a county). In some cases, a commercial airport is owned by one or more of these governmental entities but operated by a separate public body, such as an airport authority specifically created for the purpose of managing the airport. Regardless of ownership, legal responsibility for day-to-day operation and administration can be vested in any of five kinds of governmental or public entities: a municipal or county government, a multipurpose port authority, an airport authority, or a state government, all with some level of direct or indirect regulatory oversight or guidance from the federal government.
A typical municipally operated airport is city owned and run as a department of the city, with policy direction by the city council and, in some cases, by a separate airport commission or advisory board. County operated airports are similarly organized. Under this type of public operation, airport policy decisions are generally made in the broader context of city or county public investment needs, budgetary constraints, and development goals.
Some commercial airports in the United States are run by multipurpose port authorities. Port authorities are legally chartered institutions with the status of public corporations that operate a variety of publicly owned facilities, such as harbors, airports, toll roads, and bridges. In managing the properties under their jurisdiction, port authorities have extensive independence from the
state and local governments. Their financial independence rests largely on the power to issue their own debt, in the form of revenue bonds, and on the breadth of their revenue bases, which might include fees and charges from marine terminals and airports as well as proceeds (such as bridge or tunnel tolls) from other port authority properties. In addition, some port authorities have the power to tax within the port district, although it is rarely exercised.
Another type of arrangement is the single-purpose airport authority. Similar in structure and in legal charter to port authorities, these single-purpose authorities also have considerable independence from the state or local governments, which often retain ownership of the airport or airports operated by the authority. Like multipurpose port authorities, airport authorities have the power to issue their own debt for financing capital development, and in a few cases, the power to tax. Compared to port authorities, however, they must rely on a much narrower base of revenues to run a financially self-sustaining enterprise.
Since the early 1950s, there has been a steady transition from city and county controlled airports to the independent single or multipurpose authorities. While the vast majority of airports in the United States are still municipally owned and operated, the trend toward the airport authority model, particularly in larger metropolitan areas, has been largely in part to the following reasons:
Many airport market or service areas have outgrown the political jurisdiction whose responsibility the airport entails. In some cases, there is considerable, actual or potential, tax liability to a rather limited area. In these cases, the creation of an authority to "spread the potential or actual tax support" for the airport might be recommended. By spreading the tax base of support for the airport, more equitable treatment of the individual taxpayer can result and the taxpayers supporting the airport in most cases more nearly match the actual users of the facility.
Authority control of an airport is that such an organization allows the board to concentrate and specialize on airport matters.
Aviation authorities can provide efficiency of operation and economies of scale when several political jurisdictions, each with separate airport responsibilities, choose to combine these under one board. This has been done quite successfully in many areas of the country. Normally, the staff required by an airport authority will be quite small compared to the personnel requirements of a city or county government. This factor generally results in better coordination with the airport management team.
Authorities can also provide on-scene decision makers, rates, and charges unclouded by off-airport costs, and with less political impact on the business of running the airport.
State-operated airports are typically managed by the state's department of transportation. Under this model, the State may directly control the financial planning of the airport, and provide funding and financing through state means.
Although several states operate their commercial airports, only a handful of large- and medium-size commercial airports are operated in this way, primarily in Alaska, Connecticut, Hawaii, Maryland, and Rhode Island.
2.3.1. Airport Privatization
Several airports in the United States are managed by private companies generally operating under a fixed-fee contract with a local government. By contrast, many U.S. airports are managed by the local government, but a significant number of airport functions are contracted out to private contractors, including janitorial, security, maintenance, and concession management. In some cases, entire passenger terminals are managed, or even owned, by private companies. These situations are not particularly controversial, nor are the economics of these arrangements unusual.
Privatization, however, refers to shifting governmental functions and responsibilities, in whole or in part, to the private sector. The most extensive privatizations involve the sale or lease of public assets. Airport privatization, in particular, typically involves the lease of airport property and/or facilities to a private company to build, operate, and/or manage commercial services offered at the airport. No commercial airport property in the United States has been completely sold to a private entity. Long- term operating leases are the standard privatization contract.
Although no U.S. commercial airport has been outright sold to a private entity, publicly owned airports, however, do have extensive private sector involvement. Most services now performed at large commercial airports, such as airline passenger processing, baggage handling, cleaning, retail concessions, and ground transportation, are provided by private firms. Some estimates indicate as many as 90 percent of the people working at the nation's largest airports are employed by private firms. The remaining 10 percent of the employees are local and state government personnel performing administrative or public safety duties; federal employees, such as FAA air traffic controllers and Transportation Security Administration (TSA) security screeners; or other public employees. Airports have been increasingly dependent on the private sector to provide services as a way to reduce costs and improve the quality and the range of services offered.
In the mid-1990s, some public administrations contracted with private firms to manage their airports; most notably, in 1995, the Indianapolis Airport Authority became one of the first U.S. airports to contract with a private firm, the British Airports Authority, to manage its system of airports, including the Indianapolis International Airport. This agreement ended in 2007, in favor of returning the airport to direct management by the Indianapolis Airport Authority.
Since 1995, several, but not many, airports have been contracted out for full private management of portions of their operations. More commonly, a portion of the airport, such as an airport terminal, concessions, parking, and so forth, has been subcontracted for management by private sector firms.
In 1997, the FAA implemented the Airport Privatization Pilot Program, under which five public-use airports were to be operated under a private management group. The airports selected to participate in the program included Stewart International Airport in Newburgh, New York; Brown Field in San Diego, California; Rafael Hernández Airport in Aguadilla, Puerto Rico; New Orleans Lakefront Airport in New Orleans, Louisiana; and Niagara Falls International Airport in Niagara Falls, New York. The program was met with limited success, with only Stewart International Airport fully completing the privatization process. In 2008, Stewart International was acquired by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, an autonomous public agency that operates many of the region's ports, airports, bridges, and tunnels.
Coincidently, in 2008, an attempt was made to privatize Chicago's Midway Airport through a sale to a private consortium that included YVR Airport Services, which owns and operates Vancouver International Airport and other airports worldwide. The attempt failed, however, when the consortium failed to receive the desired financing to complete the effort. In 2010, the effort to privatize Midway was revived, only to be canceled again in 2013.
As of 2018, one airport in the United States, The Luis Munoz Marin International Airport in San Juan Puerto Rico, is privatized, operating under a 40-year agreement with Aerostar Airport Holdings since 2013. Three other airports, Hendry County Airglades Airport in Florida, St. Louis's Lambert International Airport, and Westchester County (New York) Airport are in the final application process to be privatized.
Rather than entirely privatizing, airports are now relying more on private-public partnerships, known as (P3 or PPP), for enhanced management, financing, and capital development efficiencies. Through these partnerships, airports have sought to diversify their sources of capital development funding, including the amount of private sector financing. Traditionally, airports have relied on the airlines and federal grants to finance their operations and development. However, in recent years, airports, especially the larger ones, have sought to decrease their reliance on airlines while increasing revenue from other sources. Nonairline revenue, such as concession receipts, now account for more than 50 percent of the total revenue larger airports receive.
In most other countries, the national government owns and operates airports. However, a growing number of countries, including Canada, Australia, and India, have been implementing strategies, including full privatization, to more extensively involve the private sector as a way to provide capital for development and improve efficiency. These privatization activities range from contracting out services and infrastructure development, in a role similar to private sector activities at U.S. airports, to the sale or lease of nationally owned airports.
For example, Mexico passed legislation in 1995 to lease 58 major airports on a long-term basis. Most countries' privatization efforts do not transfer ownership of airports to the private sector, but involve long-term leases, management contracts, the sale
of minority shares in individual airports, or the development of runways or terminals by the private sector. Only the United Kingdom has sold major airports to the private sector. To privatize, the United Kingdom sold the government corporation British Airports Authority (BAA) and the seven major airports it operated (including London's Heathrow and Gatwick Airports) in a $2.5 billion public share offering. Proceeds from this sale were used to reduce the national debt. Even after privatization, the airports have remained subject to government regulation of airline access, airport charges to airlines, safety, security, and environmental protection. The government also maintains a right to veto new investments in, or divestitures of, airports. BAA has generated profits every year since it assumed ownership of the United Kingdom's major airports in 1987.
Several factors have motivated interest in expanding the role of the private sector at commercial airports in the United States. First, privatization advocates believe that private firms would provide additional capital for development. Second, proponents believe that privatized airports would be more profitable because the private sector would operate them more efficiently. Last, advocates believe that privatization would financially benefit all levels of government by reducing demand on public funds and increasing the tax base.
The enthusiasm toward full airport privatization has appeared to wane since the late 1990s, with only a handful of airports proceeding with privatization airports as recently as 2018. Privatization in other areas of the national aviation system, particularly for air traffic control operations, was discussed as future policy as recently as 2017, but lacked in support by federal legislators.
Despite its unsettled history, airport privatization in the United States continues to be a topic of discussion. While full scale privatization of United States' airports seems unlikely, it is evident that private-public partnerships and the overall trend toward operating airports like a business rather than strictly a public utility is an ever increasing trend for airports, regardless of their individual ownership structures.
2.4. The Airport Organization Chart
An organization chart shows the formal authority relationships between superiors and subordinates at various levels, as well as the formal channels of communication within the organization. It provides a framework within which the management functions can be carried out. The chart aids employees to perceive more clearly their positions in the organization in relation to others and how and where managers and workers fit into the overall organizational structure.
Airport management organization charts range from the very simple to the very complex, depending primarily on the size, ownership, and management structure of the airport.
The organization chart is a static model of an airport's management structure; that is, it shows how the airport is organized at a given point in time. This is a major limitation of the chart, because airports operate in a dynamic environment and thus must continually adapt to changing conditions. Some old positions might no longer be required, or new positions might have to be created in order that new objectives can be reached; therefore, it is necessary that the chart be revised and updated periodically to reflect these changing conditions.
The duties, policies, and theories that govern the job of airport management vary widely over time. In addition, many such policies vary from airport to airport on the basis of individual airport operating characteristics. As a result, it is difficult to say that any organization chart is typical or that the chart of one airport at any particular time is the one still in effect even a few months later; however, all airports do have certain common functional areas into which airport activities are divided. Understandably, the larger the airport, the greater the specialization of tasks and the greater the departmentalization. Figure 2.1 shows the major functional areas and typical managerial job titles for a commercial airport.
Figure 2.1 Typical airport management organization chart.
2.4.1. Job Descriptions
The following is a brief job description for each position shown in Fig. 2.1.
Airport Director The airport director is responsible for the overall day-to-day operation of the airport. He or she reports directly to the airport authority, the airport board, or governmental commission charged with the development and administration of the airport. This individual directs, coordinates, and reviews through subordinate supervisors, all aircraft operations, building and field maintenance, construction plans, community relations, and financial and personnel matters at the airport. The airport director also:
Supervises and coordinates with airline, general aviation, and military tenants use of airport facilities
Reviews airport tenant activities for compliance with terms of leases and other agreements
Supervises enforcement of aircraft air and ground traffic and other applicable regulations
Confers with airlines, tenants, the FAA, and others regarding airport regulations, facilities, and related matters
Participates in planning for increased aircraft and passenger volume and facilities expansion
Determines and recommends airport staffing requirements
Compiles and submits for review an annual airport budget
Coordinates airport activities with construction, maintenance, and other work done by departmental staff, tenants, public utilities, and contractors
Promotes acceptance of airport-oriented activities in surrounding communities
The role of the airport director also includes being an effective executive leader of an often complex organization. As such, leadership skills are essential to the success of an airport director. These skills are not exclusively technical or specific to the mechanics of running an airport. While knowledge of airport regulations and operational policies is certainly important, and specific to the job of airport director, leadership skills such as developing strategy, culture building, conflict resolution, and business acumen are vital to the position. While much of these skills have traditionally been taught in business schools, airports have increasingly invested in executive leadership training, either in-house or through one of the industries professional organizations.
Assistant Director—Finance and Administration The assistant director—finance and administration is charged with the responsibility for overall matters concerning finance, personnel, purchasing, facilities management, and office management. Specifically, this individual's duties include:
Fiscal planning and budget administration
Accomplishment of basic finance functions such as accounts receivable and payable, auditing, and payroll
Administration of the purchasing function
Administration and use of real property including negotiation of tenant leases and inventory control
Human resources functions including compensation, employee relations, and training
Maintaining telephone, mail, and electronic communications services
Human Resources Manager The human resources manager is responsible for administering the airport's employee programs and services. In such capacity, this individual's duties include:
Dealing with personnel problems involving position classification, compensation, recruitment, placement, transfers, layoffs, promotions, leaves of absence, supervisor-subordinate relationships, and working conditions
Serving as equal rights and equal opportunity officer for the airport
Handling worker's compensation cases
Evaluating the organization pattern, reviewing and recommending proposed departmental organizational changes, and preparing position descriptions
Conferring with employees and their supervisors on personnel problems
Preparing personnel documents and maintaining personnel records
Interviewing or supervising the interviewing of applicants for airport positions
Chief Accountant The chief accountant is responsible for financial planning, budgeting, accounting, payroll, and auditing. The principal duties include:
Coordinating, consolidating, and presentation of financial plans
Administering basic accounts such as general accounts, cost accounting, and accounts receivable and payable
Administering budget; reviewing and analyzing actual performance at budget review sessions
Supervising all receipts and disbursements
Conducting periodic internal audit of all airport functions
Facilities Manager The facilities manager establishes criteria and procedures for the administration of all airport property. In this capacity, he or she is responsible for inventory control of all equipment and facilities. Principal duties and responsibilities of this individual include:
Identification and control of all property and equipment including periodic audits
Evaluating and making recommendations concerning the most efficient use of airport real property utilization
Soliciting tenants and concessionaires
Developing policy and rate structure applicable to use of property by tenants and concessionaires
Coordinating with purchasing and legal staff concerning tenant and concessionaire leases
Purchasing Manager The purchasing manager directs the procurement of materials and services to support the airport; he or she prepares, negotiates, interprets, and administers contracts with vendors. This individual's principal duties include:
Coordinating requirements for materials and services to be purchased
Purchasing all materials and services
Establishing bidding policies and procedures
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