G couple proteins are specialized proteins that act as a messaging system once activated inside the cells G coupled proteins can deliver messages from outside the cell to its interior. G Coupled proteins are known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. When G-coupled proteins are activated or in the “ON” position they are known as guanosine triphosphate (GTP), when they are disabled, they are known as guanosine diphosphate (GDP) ("GPCR | Learn science at Scitable," n.d.). Ion gated channels are opening within the cell membrane that allow movement of ions to pass in or out of the cell delivering a rapid postsynaptic response. G coupled proteins react at a slower speed. G coupled proteins are from the largest protein family consisting of 600-1000 protein members while ion gated channels deal with about 400 genes within the human genetic make-up ("Neurotransmitter receptors – Molecular cell biology – NCBI bookshelf," n.d.).
Explain how the role of epigenetics may contribute to pharmacologic action.
Epigenetics is the study of how genes change due the environment or behaviors epigenetics play a valuable contribution to pharmacology because it can help detect certain diseases early and through changes in gene expression epigenetics can manipulated how your body reads a DNA sequence by turning certain protein productions off or on. Allowing certain proteins to be blocked changing the chemical groups that make-up specific diseases ("What is epigenetics?" 2020).
Explain how this information may impact the way you prescribe medications to patients. Include a specific example of a situation or case with a patient in which the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner must be aware of the medication’s action.
This knowledge will greatly impact how an individual prescribes medication. It by provides information regarding the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes that are essential to provide patients with the best outcome. As an advance practice nurse, you must have knowledge in how a specific medication works, having the ability to determine how medication affect specific receptors in the body helps the practitioner with prescribing appropriate medications and dosages. Understanding that certain gene responses due to disease and illness can affect the way a medication works in the body is crucial. For instance, if you are prescribing a medication for a patient who has increased anxiety, having a full understanding that the amygdala deep inside the brain is what causes feelings of anxiety and fear will help providers prescribe medications that targets this area and slowing hyperactivity in this area of the brain in return decreasing the level of anxiety in the individual ("Pharmacogenetics: An important part of drug development with a focus on its application," n.d.).
Bonifacio, B. (2019, October 17). Antagonists. The Human Memory. https://human-
GPCR | Learn science at Scitable. (n.d.). Nature. https://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/gpcr-
Making sense of pharmacology: Inverse Agonism and functional selectivity. (n.d.). PubMed Central
Neurotransmitter receptors – Molecular cell biology – NCBI bookshelf. (n.d.). National Center for
Biotechnology Information. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK21586/
Pharmacogenetics: An important part of drug development with a focus on its application. (n.d.).
PubMed Central (PMC). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255432/
What is epigenetics? (2020, August 4). Centers for Disease Control and
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