Leadership Case Studies
At the end of each chapter (except for the introduction) in the Northouse (2019) book, you will read all three case studies. The instructor will choose one case study to assign you, and for EACH assigned case study from each chapter and answer each given question numbering each response as in accordance with the question numbering. Your response to each Case Study should be no more than one page double-spaced (that means, six case studies = 6 pages total). Label each Case Study (i.e. 2.2) and submit all six Case Studies in ONE paper at the end of the last day of the course. Label the computer file with your last name first, i.e. “Smith – Case Studies.” Be sure to include a cover page following the APA guidelines and submit it in the dropbox.
Case study #1 Textbook page 84-85
From chapter 2, please read the case study 2.1 Choosing a New Director of Research
and answer the three questions.
DO NOT repeat the questions in your response, however, YOU MUST
NUMBER EACH RESPONSE in accordance with the question’s
numbering. Like: 1. Sandra should select…(you get the picture).
This case study should be only 1 page in length, and this forces you to be precise and not rumble.
No need for a title page initially, and put page references as pg.24, pg.27 for your referencing.
Case Study #2 3 questions
Work on Case Study 3.1 “A Strained Research Team “ 3 questions
Textbook Page 121-122
Work on Case Study 4.2 “Eating Lunch Standing Up”4 questions
Textbook Page 153-154
Case study# 4
Work on Case Study 5.2 Why aren’t they listening? 4 questions
Textbook Page 183-184
Case study# 5
Work on Case study 6.3 “Playing in the Orchestra”4 questions
Textbook Page 219-220
Case study# 6
Work on Case Study 7.1 – “His Team Gets the Best Assignments”4 questions
Textbook Page 247-248
To Madison, Isla, and Sullivan
Theory and Practice
Peter G. Northouse Western Michigan University
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Copyright © 2019 by SAGE Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Northouse, Peter Guy, author.
Title: Leadership : theory and practice / Peter G. Northouse, Western Michigan University.
Description: Eighth Edition. | Thousand Oaks : SAGE Publications,  | Revised edition of the author’s Leadership, 2015. | Includes index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2017049134 | ISBN 9781506362311 (pbk. : alk. paper)
Subjects: LCSH: Leadership. | Leadership—Case studies.
Classification: LCC HM1261 .N67 2018 | DDC 303.3/4—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017049134
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
Acquisitions Editor: Maggie Stanley
Content Development Editor: Lauren Holmes
Editorial Assistant: Alissa Nance
Production Editor: Bennie Clark Allen
Copy Editor: Melinda Masson
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Proofreader: Sally Jaskold
Indexer: Jean Casalegno
Cover Designer: Gail Buschman
Marketing Manager: Amy Lammers
1. Preface 2. Acknowledgments 3. About the Author 4. About the Contributors 5. 1. Introduction 6. 2. Trait Approach 7. 3. Skills Approach 8. 4. Behavioral Approach 9. 5. Situational Approach
10. 6. Path–Goal Theory 11. 7. Leader–Member Exchange Theory 12. 8. Transformational Leadership 13. 9. Authentic Leadership 14. 10. Servant Leadership 15. 11. Adaptive Leadership 16. 12. Followership 17. 13. Leadership Ethics 18. 14. Team Leadership 19. 15. Gender and Leadership 20. 16. Culture and Leadership 21. Author Index 22. Subject Index
Preface Acknowledgments About the Author About the Contributors 1. Introduction
Leadership Defined Ways of Conceptualizing Leadership Definition and Components
Leadership Described Trait Versus Process Leadership Assigned Versus Emergent Leadership Leadership and Power Leadership and Coercion Leadership and Management
Plan of the Book Summary References
2. Trait Approach Description
Intelligence Self-Confidence Determination Integrity Sociability Five-Factor Personality Model and Leadership Strengths and Leadership Emotional Intelligence
How Does the Trait Approach Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies
Case 2.1 Choosing a New Director of Research Case 2.2 A Remarkable Turnaround Case 2.3 Recruiting for the Bank
Leadership Instrument Leadership Trait Questionnaire (LTQ)
3. Skills Approach Description
Three-Skill Approach Technical Skills Human Skills Conceptual Skills Summary of the Three-Skill Approach
Skills Model Competencies Individual Attributes Leadership Outcomes Career Experiences Environmental Influences Summary of the Skills Model
How Does the Skills Approach Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies
Case 3.1 A Strained Research Team Case 3.2 A Shift for Lieutenant Colonel Adams Case 3.3 Andy’s Recipe
Leadership Instrument Skills Inventory
4. Behavioral Approach Description
The Ohio State Studies The University of Michigan Studies Blake and Mouton’s Managerial (Leadership) Grid
Authority–Compliance (9,1) Country-Club Management (1,9) Impoverished Management (1,1) Middle-of-the-Road Management (5,5) Team Management (9,9)
How Does the Behavioral Approach Work? Strengths Criticisms Application
Case Studies Case 4.1 A Drill Sergeant at First Case 4.2 Eating Lunch Standing Up Case 4.3 We Are Family
Leadership Instrument Leadership Behavior Questionnaire
5. Situational Approach Description
Leadership Style Development Level
How Does the Situational Approach Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies
Case 5.1 Marathon Runners at Different Levels Case 5.2 Why Aren’t They Listening? Case 5.3 Getting the Message Across
Leadership Instrument Situational Leadership® Questionnaire: Sample Items
6. Path–Goal Theory Description
Leader Behaviors Directive Leadership Supportive Leadership Participative Leadership Achievement-Oriented Leadership
Follower Characteristics Task Characteristics
How Does Path–Goal Theory Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies
Case 6.1 Three Shifts, Three Supervisors Case 6.2 Direction for Some, Support for Others Case 6.3 Playing in the Orchestra
Path–Goal Leadership Questionnaire Summary References
7. Leader–Member Exchange Theory Description
Early Studies Later Studies Leadership Making
How Does LMX Theory Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies
Case 7.1 His Team Gets the Best Assignments Case 7.2 Working Hard at Being Fair Case 7.3 Taking on Additional Responsibilities
Leadership Instrument LMX 7 Questionnaire
8. Transformational Leadership Description
Transformational Leadership Defined Transformational Leadership and Charisma A Model of Transformational Leadership
Transformational Leadership Factors Transactional Leadership Factors Nonleadership Factor
Other Transformational Perspectives Bennis and Nanus Kouzes and Posner
How Does the Transformational Leadership Approach Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies
Case 8.1 The Vision Failed Case 8.2 An Exploration in Leadership Case 8.3 Her Vision of a Model Research Center
Leadership Instrument Sample Items From the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Form 5X-Short
9. Authentic Leadership Description
Authentic Leadership Defined Approaches to Authentic Leadership
Practical Approach Theoretical Approach
How Does Authentic Leadership Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies
Case 9.1 Am I Really a Leader? Case 9.2 A Leader Under Fire Case 9.3 The Reluctant First Lady
Leadership Instrument Authentic Leadership Self-Assessment Questionnaire
10. Servant Leadership Description
Servant Leadership Defined Historical Basis of Servant Leadership Ten Characteristics of a Servant Leader Building a Theory About Servant Leadership
Model of Servant Leadership Antecedent Conditions Servant Leader Behaviors Outcomes Summary of the Model of Servant Leadership
How Does Servant Leadership Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies
Case 10.1 Everyone Loves Mrs. Noble Case 10.2 Doctor to the Poor Case 10.3 Servant Leadership Takes Flight
Leadership Instrument Servant Leadership Questionnaire
References 11. Adaptive Leadership
Description Adaptive Leadership Defined
A Model of Adaptive Leadership Situational Challenges Technical Challenges Technical and Adaptive Challenges Adaptive Challenges Leader Behaviors Adaptive Work
How Does Adaptive Leadership Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies
Case 11.1 Silence, Stigma, and Mental Illness Case 11.2 Taming Bacchus Case 11.3 Redskins No More
Leadership Instrument Adaptive Leadership Questionnaire
12. Followership Description
Followership Defined Role-Based and Relational-Based Perspectives Typologies of Followership
The Zaleznik Typology The Kelley Typology The Chaleff Typology The Kellerman Typology
Theoretical Approaches to Followership Reversing the Lens The Leadership Co-Created Process New Perspectives on Followership
Perspective 1: Followers Get the Job Done Perspective 2: Followers Work in the Best Interest of the Organization’s Mission Perspective 3: Followers Challenge Leaders Perspective 4: Followers Support the Leader Perspective 5: Followers Learn From Leaders
Followership and Destructive Leaders 1. Our Need for Reassuring Authority Figures 2. Our Need for Security and Certainty 3. Our Need to Feel Chosen or Special 4. Our Need for Membership in the Human Community 5. Our Fear of Ostracism, Isolation, and Social Death 6. Our Fear of Powerlessness to Challenge a Bad Leader
How Does Followership Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies
Case 12.1 Bluebird Care Case 12.2 Olympic Rowers Case 12.3 Penn State Sexual Abuse Scandal
Leadership Instrument Followership Questionnaire
13. Leadership Ethics Description
Ethics Defined Level 1. Preconventional Morality Level 2. Conventional Morality Level 3. Postconventional Morality
Ethical Theories Centrality of Ethics to Leadership Heifetz’s Perspective on Ethical Leadership Burns’s Perspective on Ethical Leadership The Dark Side of Leadership Principles of Ethical Leadership
Ethical Leaders Respect Others Ethical Leaders Serve Others Ethical Leaders Are Just Ethical Leaders Are Honest Ethical Leaders Build Community
Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies
Case 13.1 Choosing a Research Assistant Case 13.2 How Safe Is Safe?
Case 13.3 Reexamining a Proposal Leadership Instrument
Ethical Leadership Style Questionnaire (Short Form) Summary References
14. Team Leadership Description
Team Leadership Model Team Effectiveness Leadership Decisions Leadership Actions
How Does the Team Leadership Model Work? Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies
Case 14.1 Can This Virtual Team Work? Case 14.2 Team Crisis Within the Gates Case 14.3 Starts With a Bang, Ends With a Whimper
Leadership Instrument Team Excellence and Collaborative Team Leader Questionnaire
15. Gender and Leadership Description
The Glass Ceiling Turned Labyrinth Evidence of the Leadership Labyrinth Understanding the Labyrinth
Gender Differences in Leadership Styles and Effectiveness Navigating the Labyrinth
Strengths Criticisms Application Case Studies
Case 15.1 The “Glass Ceiling” Case 15.2 Lack of Inclusion and Credibility Case 15.3 Pregnancy as a Barrier to Job Status
Leadership Instrument The Gender–Leader Implicit Association Test
16. Culture and Leadership
Description Culture Defined Related Concepts
Dimensions of Culture Uncertainty Avoidance Power Distance Institutional Collectivism In-Group Collectivism Gender Egalitarianism Assertiveness Future Orientation Performance Orientation Humane Orientation
Clusters of World Cultures Characteristics of Clusters
Anglo Confucian Asia Eastern Europe Germanic Europe Latin America Latin Europe Middle East Nordic Europe Southern Asia Sub-Saharan Africa
Leadership Behavior and Culture Clusters Eastern Europe Leadership Profile Latin America Leadership Profile Latin Europe Leadership Profile Confucian Asia Leadership Profile Nordic Europe Leadership Profile Anglo Leadership Profile Sub-Saharan Africa Leadership Profile Southern Asia Leadership Profile Germanic Europe Leadership Profile Middle East Leadership Profile
Universally Desirable and Undesirable Leadership Attributes Strengths Criticisms Application
Case Studies Case 16.1 A Challenging Workplace Case 16.2 A Special Kind of Financing Case 16.3 Whose Latino Center Is It?
Leadership Instrument Dimensions of Culture Questionnaire
Author Index Subject Index
This eighth edition of Leadership: Theory and Practice is written with the objective of bridging the gap between the often-simplistic popular approaches to leadership and the more abstract theoretical approaches. Like the previous editions, this edition reviews and analyzes a selected number of leadership theories, giving special attention to how each theoretical approach can be applied in real-world organizations. In essence, my purpose is to explore how leadership theory can inform and direct the way leadership is practiced.
New to This Edition
First and foremost, this edition includes a new chapter on followership, which examines the nature of followership, its underpinnings, and how it works. The chapter presents a definition, a model, and the latest research and applications of this emerging approach to leadership. It also examines the relationship between followership and destructive, or toxic, leadership. In addition, the strengths and weaknesses of followership are examined, and a questionnaire to help readers assess their own follower style is provided. Three case studies illustrating followership, including one that addresses the Penn State sexual abuse scandal and another that looks at the 1936 U.S. Olympic rowing team, are presented at the end of the chapter.
In addition to the discussion of destructive leadership in Chapter 12, this edition includes an expanded discussion of the dark side of leadership and psuedotransformational leadership and the negative uses and abuses of leadership in several of the chapters. Readers will also find that the ethics chapter features a new self-assessment instrument, the Ethical Leadership Style Questionnaire (ELSQ), which assesses a leader’s style of ethical leadership and will help leaders understand their decision-making preferences when confronting ethical dilemmas.
This edition retains many special features from previous editions but has been updated to include new research findings, figures and tables, and everyday applications for many leadership topics including leader–member exchange theory, transformational and authentic leadership, team leadership, the labyrinth of women’s leadership, and historical definitions of leadership. The format of this edition parallels the format used in earlier editions. As with previous editions, the overall goal of Leadership: Theory and Practice is to advance our understanding of the many different approaches to leadership and ways to practice it more effectively.
Although this text presents and analyzes a wide range of leadership research, every attempt has been made to present the material in a clear, concise, and interesting manner. Reviewers of the book have consistently commented that clarity is one of its major strengths. In addition to the writing style, several other features of the book help make it user-friendly.
Each chapter follows the same format: It is structured to include first theory and then practice. Every chapter contains a discussion of the strengths and criticisms of the approach under consideration, and assists the reader in determining the relative merits of each approach. Each chapter includes an application section that discusses the practical aspects of the approach and how it could be used in today’s organizational settings. Three case studies are provided in each chapter to illustrate common leadership issues and dilemmas. Thought-provoking questions follow each case study, helping readers to interpret the case. A questionnaire is provided in each of the chapters to help the reader apply the approach to his or her own leadership style or setting. Figures and tables illustrate the content of the theory and make the ideas more meaningful.
Through these special features, every effort has been made to make this text substantive, understandable, and practical.
This book provides both an in-depth presentation of leadership theory and a discussion of how it applies to real-life situations. Thus, it is intended for undergraduate and graduate classes in management, leadership studies, business, educational leadership, public administration, nursing and allied health, social work, criminal justice, industrial and organizational psychology, communication, religion, agricultural education, political and military science, and training and development. It is particularly well suited as a supplementary text for core organizational behavior courses or as an overview text within MBA curricula. This book would also be useful as a text in student activities, continuing education, in-service training, and other leadership-development programs.
SAGE edge SAGE edge for Instructors
A password-protected instructor resource site at edge.sagepub.com/northouse8e supports teaching with high-quality content to help in creating a rich learning environment for students. The SAGE edge site for this book includes the following instructor resources:
Test banks built on AACSB standards, the book’s learning objectives, and Bloom’s Taxonomy provide a diverse range of test items with ExamView test generation. Each chapter includes 100 test questions to give instructors options for assessing students. Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides offer complete flexibility for creating a multimedia presentation for the course. Lecture notes for each chapter align with PowerPoint slides to serve as an essential reference, summarizing key concepts to ease preparation for lectures and class discussion. Carefully selected video and multimedia content enhances exploration of key topics to reinforce concepts and provide further insights. Sample answers to questions in the text provide an essential reference. Case notes include summaries, analyses, sample answers to assist with discussion, and exercises. Suggested course projects and assignments help students to apply the concepts they learn to see how they work in various contexts, providing new perspectives. Chapter-specific discussion questions for study help launch classroom interaction by prompting students to engage with the material and by reinforcing important content. Exclusive access to influential SAGE journal articles and business cases ties important research and scholarship to chapter concepts to strengthen learning. Tables and figures from the book are available for download. SAGE coursepacks provide easy LMS integration.
SAGE edge for students
The open-access companion website helps students accomplish their coursework goals in an easy-to-use learning environment:
Mobile-friendly practice quizzes encourage self-guided assessment and practice. Mobile-friendly flashcards strengthen understanding of key concepts. Carefully selected video and multimedia content enhances exploration of key topics to reinforce concepts and provide further insights. EXCLUSIVE! Full-text SAGE journal articles have been carefully selected to support and expand on the concepts presented in each chapter. Meaningful web resources with exercises facilitate further exploration of topics.
SAGE coursepacks make it easy to import our quality instructor and student resource content into your school’s learning management system (LMS) with minimal effort. Intuitive and simple to use, SAGE coursepacks give you the control to focus on what really matters: customizing course content to meet your students’ needs. The SAGE coursepacks, created specifically for this book, are customized and curated for use in Blackboard, Canvas, Desire2Learn (D2L), and Moodle.
In addition to the content available on the SAGE edge site, the coursepacks include the following:
Pedagogically robust assessment tools foster review, practice, and critical thinking and offer a better, more complete way to measure student engagement:
Diagnostic chapter pretests and posttests identify opportunities for student improvement, track student progress, and ensure mastery of key learning objectives. Instructions on how to use and integrate the comprehensive assessments and resources are provided. Assignable video with corresponding multimedia assessment tools bring concepts to life that increase student engagement and appeal to different learning styles. The video assessment questions feed to your gradebook. Integrated links to the eBook make it easy to access the mobile-friendly version of the text, which can be read anywhere, anytime.
Leadership (8th ed.) is also available as an interactive eBook, which can be packaged with the text for just $5 or purchased separately. The interactive eBook offers hyperlinks to original and licensed videos, including Peter Northouse author videos in which the author illuminates various leadership concepts. The interactive eBook includes additional case studies, as well as carefully chosen journal articles from the web, all from the same pages found in the printed text. Users will also have immediate access to study tools such as highlighting, bookmarking, note-taking/sharing, and more!
Many people directly or indirectly contributed to the development of the eighth edition of Leadership: Theory and Practice. First, I would like to acknowledge my editor, Maggie Stanley, and her talented team at SAGE Publications (Lauren Holmes and Alissa Nance), who have contributed in so many different ways to the quality and success of this book. For their very capable work during the production phase, I would like to thank the copy editor, Melinda Masson, and the project editor, Bennie Clark Allen. In her own unique way, each of these people made valuable contributions to the eighth edition.
I would like to thank the following reviewers for their valuable contributions to the development of this manuscript:
Sandra Arumugam-Osburn, St. Louis Community College-Forest Park Rob Elkington, University of Ontario Institute of Technology Abimbola Farinde, Columbia Southern University Belinda S. Han, Utah Valley University Deborah A. Johnson-Blake, Liberty University Benjamin Kutsyuruba, Queen’s University Chenwei Liao, Michigan State University Heather J. Mashburn, Appalachian State University Comfort Okpala, North Carolina A&T State University Ric Rohm, Southeastern University Patricia Dillon Sobczak, Virginia Commonwealth University Victor S. Sohmen, Drexel University Brigitte Steinheider, University of Oklahoma-Tulsa Robert Waris, University of Missouri–Kansas City Sandi Zeljko, Lake-Sumter State College Mary Zonsius, Rush University
I would like to thank the following reviewers for their valuable contributions to the development of the seventh edition manuscript:
Hamid Akbari, Winona State University Meera Alagaraja, University of Louisville Mel Albin, Excelsior College Thomas Batsching, Reutlingen University Cheryl Beeler, Angelo State University Julie Bjorkman, Benedictine University Mark D. Bowman, Methodist University Dianne Burns, University of Manchester
Eric Buschlen, Central Michigan University Steven Bryant, Drury University Daniel Calhoun, Georgia Southern University David Conrad, Augsburg College Joyce Cousins, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland Denise Danna, LSUHSC School of Nursing S. Todd Deal, Georgia Southern University Caroline S. Fulmer, University of Alabama Brad Gatlin, John Brown University Greig A. Gjerdalen, Capilano University Andrew Gonzales, University of California, Irvine Decker B. Hains, Western Michigan University Amanda Hasty, University of Colorado–Denver Carl Holschen, Missouri Baptist University Kiran Ismail, St. John’s University Irma Jones, University of Texas at Brownsville Michele D. Kegley, University of Cincinnati, Blue Ash College Jeanea M. Lambeth, Pittsburg State University David Lees, University of Derby David S. McClain, University of Hawaii at Manoa Carol McMillan, New School University Richard Milter, Johns Hopkins University Christopher Neck, Arizona State University–Tempe Keeok Park, University of La Verne Richard Parkman, University of Plymouth Lori M. Pindar, Clemson University Chaminda S. Prelis, University of Dubuque Casey Rae, George Fox University Noel Ronan, Waterford Institute of Technology Louis Rubino, California State University, Northridge Shadia Sachedina, Baruch College (School of Public Affairs) Harriet L. Schwartz, Carlow University Kelli K. Smith, University of Nebraska-Lincoln David Swenson, The College of St. Scholastica Danny L. Talbot, Washington State University Robert L. Taylor, University of Louisville Precious Taylor-Clifton, Cambridge College John Tummons, University of Missouri Kristi Tyran, Western Washington University Tamara Von George, Granite State College Natalie Walker, Seminole State College William Welch, Bowie State University
David E. Williams, Texas Tech University Tony Wohlers, Cameron University Sharon A. Wulf, Worcester Polytechnic Institute School of Business Alec Zama, Grand View University Xia Zhao, California State University, Dominguez Hills
In addition, I would like to thank, for their exceptional work on the leadership profile tool and the ancillaries, Isolde Anderson (Hope College), John Baker (Western Kentucky University), Kari Keating (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign), Kathryn Woods (Austin Peay State University), Eric Buschlen (Central Michigan University), Lou Sabina (Stetson University), and Neda Dallal.
A very special acknowledgment goes to Laurel Northouse for her insightful critiques and ongoing support. In addition, I am especially grateful to Marie Lee for her exceptional editing and guidance throughout this project. For his review of and comments on the followership chapter, I am indebted to Ronald Riggio (Claremont McKenna University). I would like to thank Sarah Chace (Marian University) for her contributions to the adaptive leadership chapter, Leah Omilion-Hodges (Western Michigan University) for her contributions to the leader–member exchange chapter, Isolde Anderson (Hope College) for her comprehensive literature reviews, Robin Curtiss for her contributions to a case study on followership, and Rudy Leon for her editorial assistance.
Finally, I would like to thank the many undergraduate and graduate students whom I have taught through the years. Their ongoing feedback has helped clarify my thinking about leadership and encouraged me to make plain the practical implications of leadership theories.
About the Author
Peter G. Northouse, PhD, is Professor Emeritus of Communication in the School of Communication at Western Michigan University. Leadership: Theory and Practice is the best-selling academic textbook on leadership in the world and has been translated into 13 languages. In addition to authoring publications in professional journals, he is the author of Introduction to Leadership: Concepts and Practice (now in its fourth edition) and co-author of Leadership Case Studies in Education (now in its second edition) and Health Communication: Strategies for Health Professionals (now in its third edition). His scholarly and curricular interests include models of leadership, leadership assessment, ethical leadership, and leadership and group dynamics. For more than 30 years, he has taught undergraduate and graduate courses in leadership, interpersonal communication, and organizational communication on both the undergraduate and graduate levels. Currently, he is a consultant and lecturer on trends in leadership research, leadership development, and leadership education. He holds a doctorate in speech communication from the University of Denver, and master’s and bachelor’s degrees in communication education from Michigan State University.
About the Contributors
Crystal L. Hoyt completed her doctorate in social psychology at the University of California, Santa Barbara, and is a professor of leadership studies and psychology at the University of Richmond. Her primary research interests include female and minority leaders, stereotyping and discrimination, stigma, and cognitive biases. In her primary area of research, she explores the role of beliefs, such as self-efficacy, implicit theories, and political ideologies, in the experiences and perceptions of women and minorities in leadership or STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) field
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