Read Chapter 12: "Social and Economic Stratification" of the textbook, Social Science: An introduction to the study of society thoroughly. Also read the PowerPoint notes on "Social and Economic Stratification", books, and internet articles relevant to the topic. Select a topic of interest to you from the chapter and reflect (express your own thoughts, feelings, views, opinions, etc.) on the topic you have selected. Your reflections on the topic must be a minimum of one full page and must be written in your own words.
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Social Science: An Introduction to the Study of Society, Sixteenth Edition approaches social science from a common-sense perspective, rather than from a formalistic social science angle. Readers will see how seemingly diverse disciplines intermingle—anthropology and economics, for example. The goal of the book is to teach students critical thought and problem-solving skills that will allow them to approach social issues in an unbiased manner.
New to this edition are significant updates on:
B Race and the police B More comparison/contrasts of deviance and criminality B Alternative pathways in criminal justice B New technology such as self-driving cars B Gay marriage B Refugee and immigration issues in Europe and globally B China’s growing power B New trade initiatives B “States” in the Middle East B Nuclear arms control B Expanded web-based ancillaries for students and teachers
Elgin Hunt is deceased. He was one of the early authors of this book when it began in the 1930s, and took over as sole author in the 1950s. He continued revising the book until the late 1970s, when David Colander took over.
David Colander received his Ph.D. from Columbia University and was the Christian A Johnson Distinguished Professor of Economics at Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont from 1982 until 2013, when he was appointed Distinguished College Professor at Middlebury. In 2001–2 he was the Kelly Professor of Distinguished Teaching at Princeton University. He has authored, co-authored, or edited over 40 books and 100 articles on a wide range of topics. His books have been translated into a number of different languages, including Chinese, Bulgarian, Polish, Italian, and Spanish. He has been president of both the Eastern Economic Association and History of Economic Thought Society and has been on the editorial boards of numerous journals, including the Journal of Economic Perspectives and the Journal of Economic Education.
An Introduction to the Study of Society S I X T E E N T H E D I T I O N
Elgin F. Hunt
David C. Colander
Sixteenth edition published 2017 by Routledge 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10017
and by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 4RN
Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business
© 2017 Taylor & Francis
The right of Elgin F. Hunt and David C. Colander to be identified as author of this work has been asserted by him/her in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers.
Trademark notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe.
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Names: Hunt, Elgin F., author. | Colander, David C., author. Title: Social science: an introduction to the study of society/Elgin F. Hunt, David C. Colander. Description: Sixteenth edition. | New York, NY: Routledge, 2016. Identifiers: LCCN 2016004028 | ISBN 9781138654259 (hardback) | ISBN 9781138654266 (pbk.) | ISBN 9781315623344 (ebook) Subjects: LCSH: Social sciences. Classification: LCC H85.H86 2016 | DDC 300–dc23 LC record available at http://lccn.loc.gov/2016004028
First edition published 1955 by MacMillan Fifteenth edition published 2015 by Pearson
ISBN: 978-1-138-65425-9 (hbk) ISBN: 978-1-315-62334-4 (ebk) ISBN: 978-1-138-65426-6 (pbk)
Typeset in Minion-Pro by Sunrise Setting Ltd., Brixham, UK
Preface xix Acknowledgements xx
Part I Introduction 1
Chapter 1 Social Science and Its Methods 1
Social Science 3 Social Science as a System of Rules 5 The Scientific Method and Its Application 7 Methodology and the Social Sciences 10
The Methods of Social Science 12 Social Science Approaches to Problems 14 Educated Common Sense in the Social Sciences 16 The Use of Statistics 16 The Interdisciplinary Approach 18
Social Science and Society 18 Agreeing on Policy 18 Values, Terminology, and Rhetoric 19
Conclusion 20 Key Points 20 Some Important Terms 20 Questions for Review and Discussion 21 For Further Study 21
Appendix Historical Roots of Social Science 23 The Enlightenment 24 From Philosophy to Social Science 25 Some Important Terms 25
Chapter 2 Human Origins 26
The Origin of the Human Species 27 Darwin and the Theory of Evolution 27 Recent Developments in Genetics 30 Some Implications of Recent Developments 31 Sociobiology 31 Punctuated Equilibrium versus Gradual Change 32
The Evolution of Human Beings 34 Science, Faith, and Controversy 34 Predecessors of Modern Humans 35 DNA Evidence and the Descent of Humans 38
Conclusion 42 Key Points 43 Some Important Terms 43 Questions for Review and Discussion 43 For Further Study 44
Chapter 3 Origins of Western Society 45
From the Stone Age to the Agricultural Age 45 Early Civilizations 46 The Cradle of Modern Civilization: Mesopotamia and Egypt 46
Development of Greek Civilization 48 The Persian Empire 49 Roman Civilization 51
The Middle Ages (A.D. 476–1453) 53 The Renaissance 56 The Development of Modern Economic and Political Institutions 58
From Serfdom to Mercantilism 59 The Emergence of Nation-States 60 The Industrial and Political Revolutions of the 1750s to the 1850s 61
Conclusion 63 Key Points 63 Some Important Terms 63 Questions for Review and Discussion 63 For Further Study 64
Part II Culture and the Individual
Chapter 4 Society, Culture, and Cultural Change 66
Culture and Multiculturalism 67 Multiculturalism 67 The Shared Beliefs in Culture 68
Culture and the Nature of Society 68 Culture and Its Role in Human Societies 69 The Elements of Culture 69
Cultural Integration 72 Culture, Society, and Social Change 73 Popular Theories of Social Change 74 Factors Causing Cultural Change 75 Language and Cultural Change 78 Factors Stabilizing Culture 78 Social Change versus Social Stability 79
Social Change and Social Problems 79 Cultural Lag and Social Problems 80 Limitations of the Cultural Lag Theory 81
Contrasts among Cultures 82 The Interaction of Humans and Society 82 Cultural Relativism 82 Approach to the Study of Society 83
Key Points 84 Some Important Terms 84 Questions for Review and Discussion 84
For Further Study 85
Chapter 5 Geography, Demography, Ecology, and Society 86
Geography 86 Demography 88 Population Estimates 88 Determinants of Population Growth 88 The Growth of Population over Time 91 The Problem of Counting 91 The Malthusian Theory 92 Population and Means of Subsistence 93 The Concept of Optimal Population 94
The Question of Population Quality 94
Ecology: The Interaction of Geography, Demography, and Environment 96
The Ecological Balance 96 Pollution 97 Conservation and the High Price of Gasoline 99
Conclusion 99 Key Points 100 Some Important Terms 100 Questions for Review and Discussion 100 For Further Study 101
Chapter 6 Technology and Society 102
The Industrial Revolution 104 The Development of Industrialism in the United States 104 Standardization, Interchangeability, and Mass Production 105
The Information Revolution 108 The Social Basis for Technological Progress 109
Technology and Globalization 109 Modern Technology and the Need for Skilled Workers 110 Machines, Computers, and Unemployment 112
Technology and Social Change 112 Natural Resources, Economics, and Technology 114 Natural Resources, the Limits of Economic Growth, and Climate Change 114
The Anthropocene Age 116
Technology of the Future 116 Conclusion 117 Key Points 118 Some Important Terms 118 Questions for Review and Discussion 118 For Further Study 119
Chapter 7 Psychology, Society, and Culture 120
Socialization of the Individual 121 Significance of the Early Years of Childhood 121
Significance of Differences in Individual Environment 122 Effects of Extreme Isolation on Children 123
Personality and Its Development 124 The Nature/Nurture Debate 124 Explanations of Behavior 127 The Well-Adjusted Individual 127 Adjustment and Normality 129 The Freudian Concept of Personality 129 Pop Psychologies 131
Intelligence, Personal Adjustment, and Normality 131 Mental Tests 131 Intelligence and Personal Adjustment 136
Conclusion 136 Key Points 137 Some Important Terms 137 Questions for Review and Discussion 137 For Further Study 138
Chapter 8 Deviance, Crime, and Society 139
Deviance and Norms 139 Conflicting Norms and Tension 140 Norms, Crime, and the Rule of Law 142 When Norms Conflict: Straight Outta Compton 143
Major Theories on Deviance 145 Sociobiology and Deviance 146 Sociological Explanations of Deviance 146 Economic Explanations of Deviance 149 Summary of Various Perspectives on Deviance 149
Crime, Law, and Order 149 Problem 1: Is the U.S. Trying to Exert Too Much Control over Individuals? 150
Problem 2: Is Justice Applied Equally to All in the U.S.? 153 Problem 3: Deciding the Purpose of the Justice and Criminal System 154
Conclusion 157 Key Points 158 Some Important Terms 158 Questions for Review and Discussion 158 For Further Study 159
Part III Institutions and Society
Chapter 9 The Family 160
Variations in the Family Pattern 160 Number of Mates 161 Selection of Mates 162 Family Control 163 Single Parent Families 163 Reckoning of Descent 164
Functions of the Family in Society 165 Matching Family Patterns with Family Functions 165 Number and Stability of Mates 166 Selection of Mates 166 Family Control and Reckoning of Descent 167 Other Western Family Characteristics and Functions of the Family 168
The Family in the United States Today 168 Matchmaking and Dating 172 Sex and Singles 172 Children 174 Senior Citizens 175 Family Disorganization and Divorce 175 Singles 177 Living Together 178 The Future of the Family 179
Key Points 179 Some Important Terms 180 Questions for Review and Discussion 180 For Further Study 181
Chapter 10 Religion 182
The Nature of Religion 183 The Great Religions of Today 184 Hinduism 185 Buddhism 186 Judaism 188 Christianity 190 Modern Christianity in the United States 193 Islam 193
The Role of Religion in Society 196 Religion as a Source of Moral Values and Social Change 196 Impact of Religion on Education, the Arts, and Literature 197 Interfaith Efforts for Peace 197 The Potential Conflict between Religion and Government 197
Key Points 198 Some Important Terms 198 Questions for Review and Discussion 198 For Further Study 199
Chapter 11 Education 200
Schools as Agencies of Social Control 201 The Dual Thrust of U.S. Education 201 Education and U.S. Democracy 201
The Development of U.S. Education 202 Democratic Structure of the U.S. School System 204 Formalization of the School System 205
Examining the School System 208 Technological Change and Teaching 208 Private Schools and Home Schooling 208 Charter Schools, Privatization, and the Problem of School Finance 210 Textbooks 211 School Dropouts 211 Multiculturalism, Collaborative Learning, and Institutional Fairness 212 How Good Are U.S. Schools? 212 The Search for Excellence 214 Changes in the College Curriculum 215 Is the U.S. Educational System Equal? 216 How Much Education Should the Average Citizen Receive? 217
Interaction of Economics, Politics, and Social Institutions 218 Key Points 219 Some Important Terms 219 Questions for Review and Discussion 219 For Further Study 220
Chapter 12 Social and Economic Stratification 221
Types of Social Stratification 222 Estates 222
Castes 222 Social Classes 223
Social Mobility 227 Who Are the Upwardly Mobile? 228 Education and Social Mobility 229 Class Consciousness in the United States 230 Class Consciousness, Marx, and Weber 230
Economic and Social Inequality 231 Causes of Income Inequality 232 Jobless Recovery and Globalization 232 Measuring Poverty 233
Increasing Social and Economic Inequality 234 Policies to Reduce Inequality 235 Some Conclusions about the U.S. Class System 236
Key Points 236 Some Important Terms 236 Questions for Review and Discussion 236 For Further Study 237
Chapter 13 Stratification, Minorities, and Discrimination 238
Race and Ethnicity 238 Questions of Ethnic and Racial Superiority 240 Ethnic and Racial Prejudice and Discrimination 241 The Melting Pot 242
Minorities 243 Native Americans 244 Blacks (African Americans) 244 Hispanics 253 Asian Descent 253 Arab Americans and Americans of Middle Eastern Descent 255 Immigration and Minorities 255 Religious Minorities 258 Women 259 Senior Citizens 264 Physical Disabilities Discrimination 266
Conclusion 266 Key Points 267 Some Important Terms 267 Questions for Review and Discussion 267 For Further Study 268
Part IV Politics and Society
Chapter 14 The Functions and Forms of Government 269
The Primary Functions of Government 270 Maintaining Internal Order and External Security 270 Ensuring Justice 270 Safeguarding Individual Freedoms 271 Regulating Business’s and Individuals’ Actions 272 Promoting the General Welfare 272
Debates about the Nature of Government 273 Political Theory and Government 273 Three Views of the Nature of Government 274 Elements of Truth in Each of the Views 277
Forms of Government 277 Democracies 277 Autocracy 281
Governments Are Far from Simple 287 Key Points 287 Some Important Terms 288 Questions for Review and Discussion 288 For Further Study 289
Chapter 15 Governments of the World 290
French Government 290 The French Parliamentary System 291 The French Executive Branch 291
Chinese Government 293 Chinese Governmental History 293 Chinese State Structure 294
Nigerian Government 296 The British Influence 296 Modern Nigeria’s Government: The Fourth Republic 298
Difficulties Facing Nigeria 298 A Final Comment 300
Russian Government 300 Saudi Arabian Government 301
Some Lessons about Governments 305 Future Changes in Governments 306 Key Points 306 Some Important Terms 306 Questions for Review and Discussion 307 For Further Study 307
Chapter 16 Democratic Government in the United States 309
Historical Development of U.S. Government 309 The Structure of U.S. Government 310 Structure of the National Government 311 The Nature of Our National Government 311
The Political Process 322 Political Parties 322 Elections 324 The Fourth Estate 327 The Political Elite 328 The Military-Industrial Complex and Pressure Groups 328
Evaluation of the Democratic Political Process 330
Key Points 330 Some Important Terms 331 Questions for Review and Discussion 331 For Further Study 332
Part V Economics and Society
Chapter 17 The Organization of Economic Activities 333
The Nature of an Economy 334 Functions of an Economy 334 Economics and the Social Sciences 334 Economic Wants and Economic Goods 334 The Economic Aspects of Culture 335
The Economic Problem 335
The Evolution of Economic Systems 336 From Feudalism to Mercantilism 336 From Mercantilism to a Pragmatic Market Economy 337
Planned and Unplanned Economies 340 How Planned Economies Are Supposed to Work 340 Why Central Planning Did Not Meet Its Goals 341 How Market Economies Are Supposed to Work 342 Supply and Demand 344
Modern Economies Are Pragmatic Market Economies 345
Conclusion 346 Key Points 347 Some Important Terms 347 Questions for Review and Discussion 347 For Further Study 348
Chapter 18 The Economy, Government, and Economic Challenges Facing the United States 349
Government’s Indirect Role in the Economy 349 The Problem of Regulating the Economy 350 Whose Desires Does the Government Reflect? 351 Fluctuating Attitudes toward Regulation 352
Government’s Direct Role in the Economy 352 Where the Government Spends Its Money 353 Where Government Gets Its Money 353 Alternative Methods of Supply in a Pragmatic Market Economy 354
Some Controversial Roles of the Government 355 Income Redistribution through Government 355 Government’s Macroeconomic Role 358
Economic Challenges Facing the United States in the Future 360
The Debt Challenge 360 The Globalization Challenge 362 The Income Inequality Challenge 364 The Climate Change Challenge 365
Key Points 367 Some Important Terms 367 Questions for Review and Discussion 367 For Further Study 368
Part VI Global Issues
Chapter 19 International Political Relations 369
The State in International Relations 369 The Nation-State 370 The Establishment and Disappearance of Nation-States 372
The Rise of the European Union 373 Sovereignty of States 374 Power in the World Community 374 The Nature and Sources of National Power 374 The End of U.S. Hegemony and the Rise of Chinese Military Power 378 Other Sources of Power 378
Maintaining Security 380 Foreign Policies 382 Geography and Foreign Policy 382 Values, Ideologies, and Foreign Policy 383
The United States in the World Community 385 The President and Foreign Policy 386 U.S. Foreign Policies 387
Key Points 389 Some Important Terms 390 Questions for Review and Discussion 390 For Further Study 391
Chapter 20 International Economic Relations 392
The Terminology of Trade 393 Advantages and Disadvantages of International Trade 395
Three Advantages of Trade 395 Disadvantages of Trade 395 Why Economists Generally Support Free Trade 396 Why You Can’t Get the Advantages without the Disadvantages 396
Restrictions on International Trade 397 Tariffs on Imports 398 Import Quotas 399 Removing Trade Restrictions 400 Globalization and Trade Restrictions 400
Foreign Exchange 402 The Meaning of Foreign Exchange 402 Fixed and Flexible Exchange Rate Systems 403
Globalization, Trade Imbalances, and Exchange Rates 405 Conclusion 405 Key Points 406 Some Important Terms 406 Questions for Review and Discussion 406 For Further Study 407
Chapter 21 The Political Economies of Developing Countries 408
Problems of Developing Countries 410 The Political Consensus Problem 411 The Corruption Problem 412 The Economic Problem 412 The Debt Problem 415 The Population Problem 415 The Brain Drain Problem 415 Mission Impossible: Advice to a Potential Leader 416
Options of Developing Countries 417 Political Options 417 Economic Options 417 Foreign Policy Options 417 Population Options 418 The Brain Drain Option 418 Who Will Be the Next Leader? 418
Case Studies 418 China 419 Venezuela 422 Uganda 424
Conclusion 426 Key Points 427 Some Important Terms 427
Questions for Review and Discussion 427 For Further Study 428
Chapter 22 International Institutions and the Search for Peace 429
The Problem of War 430 The Causes of War 430 Approaches to the Problem of War 432
The United Nations 434 Is the UN Worth It? 435 The UN’s Role in Keeping the Peace 436 Other UN Approaches 439
The Outlook for Peace 440 Trouble Spots of the World 441
Conclusion 448 Key Points 448 Some Important Terms 448 Questions for Review and Discussion 448 For Further Study 449
Social science is taught in diverse ways. Some courses take a global perspective, some an anthropological perspective, some a psychological perspective, some a sociological perspective, and some a historical perspective—to name just a few. In my view, although each individual social science perspective has something to offer, what distinguishes the social science course is that it looks at problems from as many different perspectives as possible, relying on the scholar’s educated common sense to choose the perspective that is most useful for a particular problem. The educated common sense perspective is the social science perspective.
Social science is an important course. All too often our educational system rushes students into specializations before the students have an overall picture—before they know where they want to go. Once they have an overall picture, specialization is necessary, but to specialize before having an overall picture is unfair to students. Students who specialize too early don’t develop a common sense perspective; they aren’t sensitive to the interrelationships and resonances among disciplines. At worst, they become slaves of their discipline’s approach. At best, they have the wisdom to recognize that there are many approaches to a problem, but their lack of training forces them to recreate the wheel. Knowledge of the other disciplines would have saved them the trouble and been far more efficient.
That’s why I am a strong advocate of the social science course and have been urging colleges to merge their various social science departments into one composite department that focuses more on the interrelationships among the various social sciences than is cur- rently done. The general social science course is one of the most important courses students take in college, and in my view it is a necessary prerequisite to taking courses in specific disciplines. It puts those other social science courses in perspective.
New to This Edition The reason for the revision? The theory of social science changes slowly. Were this book only about theory, new editions wouldn’t be needed. But the book is not primarily about theory; it is about reality, and thus data and discussions about how theory relates to current events need updating. While social science theory changes slowly, political and economic issues change fast. A revision is necessary to keep the discussion and data up to date and to account for important political and economic changes.
Changes include expanded discussion of conflicts about racial bias and the police, more comparisons/contrasts of deviance and criminality, discussions of alternative pathways in criminal justice, discussions of new technology such as self-driving cars, discussion of gay marriage, American political dynasties, refugees and immigration issues in Europe and globally, China’s growing power, new trade initiatives, “states” in the Middle East, and nuclear arms control. We also expanded the web-based ancillaries for students and teachers.
These changes were made to strengthen the presentation and to keep the book current. I also reworked sections that reviewers thought needed work and updated all chapters. I added a new chapter on deviance, crime, and society to incorporate important developments into thinking about the way in which blacks are treated by police, and the serious problems in the U.S. criminal justice system. There were also significant changes in the discussion of technology and its effect on the job market. The goal of the revision was to keep the dis- cussions as up to date as possible, but to avoid fads. Many of the changes in the earlier chapters reflected excellent suggestions by reviewers, who help to keep me on my toes, and the book more relevant for students.
Despite all these changes the book remains what it was in the previous edition—a relatively neutral (at least as neutral as I am able to be) common sense overview and introduction to the social sciences and social science thinking about the major issues of our day.
Acknowledgments As always, the book benefits from the suggestions of reviewers, colleagues, and students who have e-mailed me. I’d like to thank them all. For this edition, I’d specifically like to thank some great reviewers: Victor J. Ingurgio, University of Oklahoma, Norman; Heather Griffiths, Fayetteville State University; Charles Matzke, Michigan State University; and Ted Williams III, Kennedy-King College, City Colleges of Chicago. In addition to those reviewers I want to thank all the professors who sent in suggestions about the revision, including Martin Evans of the University of Toronto. I would also like to specifically thank Tabitha N. Otieno of Jackson State University who helped with updating the ancillaries for the book, and Isabella Cass, a student at Middlebury College who helped with proofreading, updating ancillaries, and providing answers to end-of-chapter questions.
Over the last few editions the reviewers have included William Plants, University of Rio Grande; David S. Schjott, Northwest Florida State College; Emmanuel Agbolosoo, Navajo Community College; Ali Al-Taie, Shaw University; Verl Beebe, Daytona Beach Community College; John Beineke, Kennesaw State College; Thomas J. Bellows, The University of Texas at San Antonio; Dallas A. Blanchard, University of West Florida; Ducarmel Bocage, Howard University; William K. Callam, Daytona Beach Community College; Pam Crabtree, New York University; Bruce Donlan, Brevard Community College; Anthony Douglas, Lornan, Mississippi; Dr. William M. Downs, Georgia State University; Phil A. Drimmel, Daytona Beach Community College; J. Ross Eshleman, Wayne State University; Dana Fenton, City University of New York, Borough of Manhattan Community College; Cyril Francis, Miami Dade College North Campus; Richard Frye, Neuro-Diagnostic Lab, Winchester Memorial Hospital, Winchester, Virginia; Vikki Gaskin-Butler, University of South Florida St. Petersburg; Judy Gentry, Columbus State Community College; Paul George, Miami Dade College; Don Griffin, University of Oklahoma; Heather Griffiths, Fayetteville State University; Charles F. Gruber, Marshall University; Ghulam M. Haniff, St. Cloud State University (Minnesota); Roberto Hernandez, Miami–Dade New World Center; Charles E. Hurst, The College of Wooster; Sharon B. Johnson, Miami Dade College; Kenneth C. W. Kammeyer, University of Maryland; Rona J. Karasik, St. Cloud State University; Lynnel Kiely, Truman College; H. D. Kirkland, Lake City Community College; Patricia E. Kixmiller, Miami Dade College; D. R. Klee, Kansas City, Missouri; Casimir Kotowski, Harry S. Truman City College; Errol Magidson, Richard J. Daley Community College; James T. Markley, Lord Fairfax Community College; Stephen McDougal, University of Wisconsin–La Crosse; David J. Meyer, Cedarville University; Karen Mitchell, University of Missouri; Catherine Montsinger, Johnson C. Smith University; Lynn Mulkey, Hofstra University; Roy Mumme, University of South Florida; Eleanor J. Myatt, Palm Beach
Junior College; Quentin Newhouse Jr., Howard University; Earl Newman, Henry Ford Community College; Annette Palmer, Howard University; Robin Perrin, Pepperdine University; Joseph Pilkington-Duddle, Highland Beach, Florida; William Primus, Miami Dade College, North Campus; Roger Rolison, Palm Beach Community College; William H. Rosberg, Kirkwood Community College; Dan Selakovich, Oklahoma State University; Henry A. Shockley, Boston University; Julie Smith, Mount Aloysius College; Ruth Smith, Miami Dade College; Scharlene Snowden, City University of New York, Medgar Evers College; Ronald Stubbs, Miami Dade College; Larry R. Stucki, Reading Area Community College; Barry Thompson, University of Rio Grande; Judy Thompson, University of Rio Grande; Elizabeth Trentanelli, Miami Dade College; Margaret Tseng, Marymount University; Edward Uliassi, Northeastern University; Angela Wartel, Lewis Clark State College; David Wells, Glendale Community College; Ted Williams, City College of Chicago; W. M. Wright, Lake City Community College; Norman R. Yetman, The University of Kansas; and George Zgourides Primus, Miami Dade College North Campus.
At the end of an earlier edition, I included a sheet for students to grade the book and to send me suggestions for improvement. A number of students did this, and their suggestions have played an important role in shaping the book. Most, I’m happy to say, were highly positive, but a few attacked the book and the course. One particularly memorable student flunked me on just about every chapter and wrote the following:
Until you and this so called science become legitimized I’d rather spend time gorging myself and then vomiting. Guesses, hypotheses, maybes, might be’s don’t belong in college; they belong in elementary school.
That student obviously read the book, because he is correct: The book doesn’t tell the student what is right or wrong, and it does report guesses, hypotheses, and maybes. But that student is wrong about what does and what doesn’t belong in college. Guesses, hypotheses, and maybes are precisely what belong in college, because by the time students are in college they can be expected to have the maturity to understand that knowledge is nothing but good guesses, reasonable hypotheses, and logical maybes.
Social science doesn’t tell you what’s right. It presents the observations and the theories as fairly as it can and lets you decide.
To my knowledge, this is the longest continuing college textbook in the United States. It began in the 1930s when some Chicago professors put together their notes and turned them into a book. It evolved through the 1940s and 1950s into a standard text, and then in the 1960s, Elgin Hunt took it over as the sole author. I took it over in the late 1970s, totally updating and revising it to reflect new developments. I have kept his name on the title to reflect the origins of the book and the fact that it is a collective effort of previous scholars, with a changing group of people working on it.
This edition marked a change in publisher from Pearson to Taylor & Francis. I would like to thank Dean Birkenkamp, Amanda Yee, Darcy Bullock, and Peter Lloyd for their hard work. Finally, I want to thank my family for helping me find the time to work on the book.
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