This week's resources covered Effective Writing, the Profession of Arms, and Humility in Leadership. Which of the three resonated with you or impacted your career experiences the most? Use Humility in leadership to answer this question.
How would you explain the Profession of Arms to a junior worker? How would you explain Humility in Leadership to a leader?
Answer in 200 to 250 words
Humility in Leadership – Ethics
America's Military- A Profession of Arms
We have come a long way since the Goldwater-Nichols Act became law more than 2j years ago, we can go further. We will.
Introduction: Why we must renew our commitment to the Profession of Arms
2. The Military Profession
the Foundation – Strengthening our Profession of Arms
S. Mission Command
6. Jointness – Strength from Diversity
7. The Way Ahead- Advancing the Profession of Arms
America's Military- A Profession of Arms
The CJCS leads our Profossion of Arms. He is the steward of our military profession, and with the Joint Chiefs is the keeper of our values, ethics, and standards. He integrates the collective strengths and unique cultures of each Service into a Joint Team during both peace and war, promoting Jointness. Professionalism and Jointness are perishable, they must be cultivated
Introduetion: Why we must renew our commitment to the Profession of Arms
Following September 11,2001, America's All-Volunteer Force embarked on campaigns extending well beyond any limits imagined as the era of persistent conflict unfolded, its resilience arguably exceeded expectations of its architects. As we reflect on a decade of war, America's Service men and women fought as a Joint Force seljlessly serving our Nation, answering the call to duty repeatedly, continuously adapting. The sacred element of trust enabled them to persevere.
With the campaigns in Afghanistan and Iraq in transition, we must prepare for a different future as we shape Joint Force 2020 in an environment of increasing fiscal pressure. Renewing our commitment to the Profession of Arms is essential to ensure we maintain the best led and best trained force in the world -Leadership is the foundation of our profession. This is essential to ensure we remain the finest military in the world.
As learning institutions, it is imperative that we reflect on our experiences during the past 10 years to assess the impact and understand both our strengths and weaknesses. This is necessary to see ourselves so we can determine how we should adapt and institutionalize the lessons of the last decade. This will enable us to promote the knowledge, skills, attributes, and behaviors that define us as a profession, and develop our future leaders.
We undertake this as we remain both a force in contact and a force that must begin to reshape. We do so from a position of strength anchored in our shared values and joint effectiveness born from years of fighting together, and the strength of our Service competencies and cultures. As we go forward, we must continue to uphold the values that underpin our profession to maintain and enhance the trust of those we serve, our civilian leaders in government, and the American people.
Values. The Profession of Arms demands its members live by the values described in the "City on the Hill" metaphor. We must provide an example to the world that cannot be diminished by hardships and challenges. This example is based upon the words and intent of the US Constitution that each of us takes a personal oath to support and defend. Our oath demands each ofus display moral courage and always do what is right, regardless of the cost. We are all volunteers in our willingness to serve and to place others' needs above our own. As shared values, our calling cards are Duty, Honor, Courage, Integrity, and Selfless Service. Commitment to the rule of law is integral to our values which provide the moral and ethical fabric of our profession.
The Military Profession. The seriousness of our profession was most vividly explained by General Douglas MacArthur in his farewell speech to West Point Cadets in May of 1962 when he said "Yours is the profession of arms, the will to win, the sure knowledge that in war there is
America's Military- A Profession of Arms
no substitute for victory, that if you lose, the Nation will be destroyed, that the very obsession of your public service must be Duty, Honor, Country:'Our profession is a calling requiring unique expertise to fulfill our collective responsibility to the American people, "provide for the common defense and secure the blessings of liberty~' Our profession is distinguished from others in society because of our expertise in the justified application of lethal military force and the willingness of those who serve to die for our Nation. Our profession is defined by our values, ethics, standards, code of conduct, skills, and attributes. As volunteers, our sworn duty is to the Constitution. Our status as a profession is granted by those whom we are accountable to, our civilian authority, and the American people.
All service men and women belong to the profession from the junior enlisted to our most senior leaders. We are all accountable for meeting ethical and performance standards in our actions and similarly, accountable for our failure to take action, when appropriate. The distinction between ranks lies in our level of responsibility and degree of accountability. We share the common attributes of character, courage, competence, and commitment We qualify as professionals through intensive training, education, and practical experience. As professionals, we are defined by our strength of character, life-long commitment to core values, and maintaining our professional abilities through continuous improvement, individually and institutionally.
Trust- both internal and external. As the Joint Force fought together for last 10 years under difficult conditions, trust stands out as the defining element that enabled our military to overcome adversity and endure the demands of extended combat. Trust is earned not given, through deeds not words. It extends laterally and vertically, both ways. Trust is inherent in the strength of our collective character.
Internal trust is integral to the chain of conun8nd. It is both inherent in and demanded amongst peers, between seniors and subordinates. Followers trust that their leaders will take care of their charges even at their own expense. Leaders set the example and foster a relationship with their subordinates as teacher to scholar. Military leadership should, as President John Adams counseled, 'mspire others to dream more, learn more and achieve more?~ And in the heat of battle our troops trust one another to each do their duty; they trust their leaders and chain of command to ensure they get the support they need; they trust their families will be cared for; that a fallen comrade will never be left behind.
External trust is the bond with which we connect with those we serve, our leaders in government and the American people. It must be continually earned. Special trust and confidence is placed in military leaders. This trust is based upon the fact that the members of our profession remain apolitical and would never betray the principles and intent of the Constitution, even at the risk of their own lives. Our men and women, who serve, return to society better for their service.
Leadership as the Foundation – Strengthening our Profession of Arms. If we provide the leadership that our Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, Marines, and Coast Guardsmen deserve, they will execute beyond imagination. Hence, the foundation and driving force of the Profession of Anns are its leaders. They provide an incalculable competitive advantage against our adversaries. They are the builders and maintainers of trust; they inspire others to achieve what they thought was beyond reach; they teach and mentor their subordinates to develop experts; and
America's Military- A Profession of Arms
they uphold and enforce our ethical and moral standards regardless ofthe situation. They understand the cost of leadership places mission and welfare of others above self. It is they who instill the ethos that we will never leave a fallen comrade nor betray the public trust. Today we have the finest officers and non-commissioned officers on the planet. Investing in their development is essential to strengthening and cultivating our profession.
Mission Command. The increasing complexity and uncertainty anticipated in the future environment demand that Joint Force 2020 employ mission command to unleash its full potential in a way that harnesses the initiative and innovation of all members of the team. Commanders exercise mission command by understanding the military problem, visualizing the end state and operation, and describing their vision. They direct actions throughout planning and execution and arm their subordinates with intent.
Today, much of the Joint Force is employed in environments involving ill-structured problems and against adaptable, thinking adversaries who exploit opportunities at every tum. These challenges call for leaders at the tactical level to exercise greater personal initiative vice relying on the decision-making of echelons well above the point of action. Leaders must empower individual initiative by providing clear, concise, and complete mission orders in a climate of mutual trust and understanding. The future joint force will be one where junior leaders are empowered to exercise disciplined initiative based on clear guidance and intent. Institutionalizing mission command is imperative to prepare our next generation of leaders.
Jointness- Strength from Divenity. Each Service has a proud history, rich heritage, and distinct culture, but all share an ethic of service to the nation and willingness to sacrifice. From this common ground they derive their espoused values. The artifacts and basic assumptions that define each Service culture reflect their assigned roles and missions, and the principal domain in which they operate. Service cultures provide a source of strength for honing their unique expertise and competencies.
Strength in diversity of Service cultures and their unique characteristics lies in the adaptability and versatility they provide to the Joint Force across the range of military operations when operating as a team. Integrating Service cultures in a complimentary fashion realizes this strength. This is achieved by fostering trust and confidence. Operating together as an interdependent team creates an environment that promotes mutual respect and cohesion. Jointness is a manifestation of strength from diversity.
Jointness is derived from the integration of Service cultures and competencies, and requires teamwork amongst all Services and Military Departments to accomplish objectives in the best interest of National security unfettered by parochialism. It also demands teamwork with our interagency, intergovernmental, and coalition partners to achieve unity of effort to accomplish our shared objectives. Joint interdependence is integral to Jointness and is essential to provide the greatest number of military options for our Nation • s leaders to preserve peace, and when necessary, respond to crisis to defend the American people and our national interests.
The Way Ahead -Advancing the Profession of Arms. Renewing our commitment to our profession is imperative as we bring more of the Joint Force home to reset. This presents unique challenges for many who only know the cycle of repetitive combat and deployment. As we reflect on our combat and operational experiences over the last decade of war, we must do so
America's Military- A Profession of Arms
from both joint and Service perspectives to conduct a holistic assessment. Then we must train and educate on what we have learned. In some cases, core competencies have faded and must be strengthened. We also understand that we must be proficient in more than combat, and must remain versatile to conduct security, engagement, relief and reconstruction. This endeavor requires all Joint Warfighters to engage in a serious dialogue to chart the way ahead to strengthen our profession as we develop Joint Force 2020. We must ensure we remain responsive and resilient; the American people deserve nothing less.
Reference: https://ndupress.ndu.edu/Portals/68/ Documents/Books/AFO/Armed-Forces-Officer.pdf
The Profession of Arms
Humans fight as individuals and as groups. Some fight primarily for money, some for love of fighting, and some for lack of alternative opportunities. Others fight for love of country and civic duty. As noted by General Sir John Hackett, “From the beginning of . . . recorded his- tory physical force, or the threat of it, has always been freely applied to the resolution of social problems.”1 Human societies—from tribes and city-states to empires, organized religions, and nation-states—have regularly established and relied on groups of specialists who, willingly or unwillingly, assumed the burden of fighting, killing, and dying for the larger group. Whatever the formal name or title given to these groups, theirs is the profession of arms.
It is a basic premise of civilized societies, especially democratic ones, that the military serves the state (and by extension, the people), not the other way around. The profession of arms exists to serve the larger community, to help accomplish its purposes and objectives, and to protect its way of life. As Samuel Huntington put it in The Soldier and the State: “The justification for the maintenance and employment of military force [or military forces, for that matter] is in the political ends of the state.”2 In wartime or in peacetime, at home or abroad, the Armed Forces serve the larger society and perform the tasks their gov- ernment assigns them.
In his classic study The Profession of Arms, General Hackett stated, “The function of the profession of arms is the ordered application of force in the resolution of a social or political problem.”3 The essential task of its members is to fight, individually and collectively; of its offi- cers, to direct and lead those who apply the instruments of destruction to achieve assigned ends. With rare exceptions, a society’s government
identifies the problems to be resolved with force, and it then turns to and relies on the professionals to handle the always difficult, usually dangerous, often bloody details in a manner acceptable to the citizens and supportive of their goals.
The most basic task of the profession of arms is the armed defense of the society, its territory, population, and vital interests. In its most elemental sense, the profession of arms is all about fighting and all about war. As the 19th-century Prussian strategist and student of war Carl von Clausewitz observed, “For as long as they practice this activ- ity, soldiers will think of themselves as members of a kind of guild, in whose regulations, laws, and customs the spirit of war is given pride of place.”4 The defining mission of the Armed Forces is the preparation for and the conduct of war, which includes securing the military vic- tory until peace is restored politically. It is the warfighting mission that determines how forces are organized, equipped, and trained.
Whatever its particular forms, this unique and specialized ser- vice to the Nation gives the military profession its own nature and distinctive status. Because those responsibilities include the poten- tially wholesale taking and losing of life, the military profession stands alone, in its own eyes and in the eyes of those it serves. Its members must always be conscious of their commitment: to be prepared to give that “last full measure of devotion.”5 They serve at frequent cost to their convenience, comfort, family stability, and often their limbs and lives. It is ultimately because of their willingness to endure hardship and risk life and limb on behalf of the Nation, not the willingness to kill and de- stroy in the Nation’s name, that members of all the Armed Forces enjoy the respect and gratitude of the American people. Theirs is a higher loyalty and purpose, or rather a hierarchy of loyalties, which puts na- tion above service, service above comrades in arms, and comrades above self. Soldiers serve the Nation; they fight and die for each other.
The commitment to the Nation is a two-way street between the individual military member and the larger society. Society invests
much—its safety and security, its hopes and ideals, much of its trea- sure, and the best of its men and women—in the Armed Forces. For the member of the profession of arms, fulfilling society’s demands and expectations means investing one’s best as a professional and as a per- son. As General Hackett observed, “Service under arms has been seen
at times and in some places as a calling resembling that of the priest- hood in its dedication.”6
Like the priesthood, the profession of arms is a vocation, a higher calling, to serve others, to sacrifice self, to be about something larger than one’s own ambitions and desires, something grander than one’s own contributions and even one’s own life. This is a recurring and central theme in discourses on the profession of arms. Reflecting on “General George C. Marshall and the Development of a Professional Military Ethic,” Josiah Bunting III noted that the “ethical leadership of George Marshall provided many lessons[s] including: an officer never is to take the counsel of his ambition.”7 At the dedication of the U.S. Army War College, Secretary of War Elihu Root told the assembled audience and, by extension, all military members: “Remember always that the highest duty of a soldier is self-abnegation. Campaigns have been lost for no other cause than the lack of that essential quality.”8
This hierarchy of loyalties has several formulations in the United States Armed Forces. In the Air Force, it is “service before self.” In the Navy, it is “ship-shipmate-self.” The Army defines the value of loyalty as a hierarchy of responsibilities to the Constitution, service, unit, and other Soldiers. The basic idea is that there is always something larger, something more important than the individual. Service in the Armed Forces is not primarily about self, but rather about others—fellow cit- izens and fellow military members. In Huntington’s words, “The mili- tary ethic is basically corporative in spirit.”9
The loyalty to fellow military members has its roots and its ratio- nale in the ultimate activity of the Armed Forces—combat and war. What Lieutenant General Harold G. Moore, USA (Ret.) and Joseph L. Galloway wrote in the prologue to their memorable book about Vietnam could have been said by soldiers of any nation about any war: “We dis- covered in that depressing, hellish place, where death was our constant companion, that we loved each other. We killed for each other, we died for each other, and we wept for each other.”10 The classic statement of this perennial and honorable theme is in Shakespeare’s Henry V:
We few, we happy few, we band of brothers; For he today that sheds his blood with me Shall be my brother.
Given the stakes, it is no wonder that the profession of arms invokes and requires, in the words of the U.S. military officer’s com- mission, “special trust and confidence.”
“The modern officer corps is a professional body and the modern military officer is a professional man.”11 So wrote Huntington in 1957, in the first sentence of chapter 1 of The Soldier and the State. Historians would dispute that the status was recent, or even unassumed, in 1957. Some parts of this sentence, such as the masculine noun and its restric- tion to the officer corps, are now out of date. But Huntington’s basic thesis was that the military belonged in the ranks of the classic profes- sions, including the clergy, medicine, and law. The military possessed what Huntington took to represent the “distinguishing characteristics of a profession as a special type of vocation . . . expertise, responsibil- ity, and corporateness [emphasis added].”12 Experience has shown the importance of a fourth characteristic, a professional ethic and an ethos.
For Huntington, as well as other authors, profession is not a term to be thrown about loosely. The concept of “a profession” is an abstract, inductive, descriptive device adopted by 19th- and 20th-century social scientists to examine similarities and differences among characteristics present in particular kinds of human organizations for work—particu- larly medicine, law, and clergy. Experts disagree somewhat on the par- ticulars of those characteristics, and their relative importance, but tend to agree on this point: “A profession is a peculiar type of functional group with highly specialized characteristics.”13 The nature and forms of professions evolved significantly in the 20th century, and it is safe to say that the structure and organization of the medical profession, the paradigmatic case, has changed a good deal since Huntington wrote in the mid-1950s.
Huntington’s basic argument—that the modern military is a pro- fession—is widely accepted today, certainly in the United States.14
The concern now is not to prove that the military is a profession, but rather to inspire men and women in uniform to reflect the expected characteristics of professionals in their day-to-day activities: to hold themselves and others to uniformly high standards of performance and conduct, lest they lose the discretion in performance that is the acknowledgment of professional status. On his first day as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Martin E. Dempsey wrote a letter to
the Joint Force in which he identified his key themes as Chairman, one of which was: “We must renew our commitment to the Profession of Arms. We’re not a profession simply because we say we’re a profession. We must continue to learn, to understand, and to promote the knowl- edge, skills, attributes, and behaviors that define us as a profession.”15
For General Dempsey and for others, it is not in the saying but in the doing that the heart of a profession lies.
Influenced by Huntington, General Hackett wrote that the mili- tary occupation
has evolved into a profession, not only in the wider sense of what is professed, but in the narrower sense of an occupation with a distinguishable corpus of specific technical knowledge and doctrine, a more or less exclusive group coherence, a complex of institutions peculiar to itself, an educational pattern adapted to its own specific needs, a career structure of its own and a distinct place in the society which has brought it forth.16
This chapter describes four elements that are widely accepted as
characteristic to any profession: special expertise, a collective and indi- vidual responsibility to serve society, a sense of “corporateness,” and a professional ethic and ethos.
A distinguishing characteristic of any profession is authority for discre- tionary application of a unique knowledge, based on society’s implicit trust that members will apply their particular skills reliably, effectively, honorably, and efficiently. Thus, a profession is an identifiable body of practitioners granted authority (by the larger society) for discretionary practice of a unique and necessary skill.
A profession has a body of expertise, built over time on a base of practical experience, which yields fundamental principles and abstract knowledge; which normally must be mastered through specialized education; which is intensive, extensive, and continuing; and which can then be applied to the solution of specific, practical problems. “Professional knowledge . . . is intellectual in nature and capable of
preservation in writing. Professional knowledge has a history, and some knowledge of that history is essential to professional competence.”17
The body of specialized knowledge changes over time, as various factors evolve or new ones appear. One responsibility of a profes- sion and of its individual members is to acquire and apply this new information, integrating or synthesizing it into the existing body of knowledge. This is done through formal education, in professional schools, and through individual and collaborative experiential learn- ing “on the job.” Individual professionals share experiences, insights, and knowledge, engage in continuous learning, and serve as faculty or instructors in various professional schools and courses. Continuing self-development is one of the hallmarks of a profession and its indi- vidual members.
In describing the expertise of the profession of arms, Huntington used political scientist Harold Lasswell’s phrase “the management of violence,” which he went on to say involves “(1) the organization, equipping, and training of [the] force; (2) the planning of its activ- ities; and (3) the direction of its operation in and out of combat.”18 Many will recognize in the first category the functions that Title 10 of the U.S. Code assigns to the three military departments19 (Army, Air Force, and Navy).20 Much of the second and third types of work is done, in the United States, by the Combatant Commanders and the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff under guidance and direction from the Commander-in-Chief and the Secretary of Defense.
The management of violence draws on a body of knowledge devel- oped over centuries, through organized reflection on historical and personal experiences; from this reflection come abstract principles, which have been honed, transmitted, and advanced in professional military education institutions, so that military professionals can apply them to the solution of practical military problems. In book two of On War, Clausewitz explains how military theory grew out of the reflections of individual warriors on their own personal experiences, especially in war:
As these reflections grew more numerous and history more sophisticated, an urgent need arose for military principles and rules whereby the controversies that are so normal in military
history—the debate between conflicting opinions—could be brought to some sort of resolution……… Efforts were therefore made to equip the conduct of war with principles, rules, or even systems.21
The traditional notion was that this specialized knowledge in the
management of violence was to be applied to “fight and win the nation’s wars.” However, this traditional notion does not exhaust the variety of tasks societies give their organized and uniformed fighters. Because they are disciplined and armed organizations, with a wide range of skills and capabilities, military forces are called upon frequently to per- form other important missions in service to the state, such as main- taining civil order at home and abroad and providing disparate forms of civil relief in times of crisis or disaster. It is important not to think that the primary mission for which the Armed Forces are organized, trained, and equipped is the only mission society may legitimately give them.
Society may change the terms of the services that it expects, or even demands, a particular profession will provide. Accordingly, a desire on the part of citizens to change the definition of the services they expect can lead the profession to expand the range of services it has tradition- ally provided. In the United States, the Army, in particular, has been used at various times to perform internal development, to promote exploration, to maintain order, to enforce Federal law, and even to run Civilian Conservation Corps camps during the Great Depression of the 1930s. The U.S. Coast Guard’s principal roles involve maintaining the security and safety of the Nation’s ports and waterways and enforcing Federal laws and treaties on the high seas. Traditionally, detachments of Marines guard U.S. embassies abroad, and Air Force and Navy lift assets and technical units are regularly pressed into service providing transportation for relief supplies in disasters at home and abroad. The organizational and planning skills of Armed Forces officers are often transferable to nontraditional assignments, and no less valuable than their material contributions. Sir David Richards, a former Chief of Defense Staff in Great Britain, writes that: “The armed forces’ great strength lies in our capacity to analyse a problem, plan a solution and then implement it under pressure.”22 The U.S. Armed Forces are expected to bring great skill and enthusiasm to all assignments.
Service to Society
A profession has a responsibility to provide a useful, even critical, ser- vice to the larger society. In exchange for the service that a profession provides, the society grants to members of that profession certain priv- ileges, prerogatives, and powers that it does not extend to the rest of its citizens.
The American people have granted the Armed Forces: custody of nuclear weapons; extraordinary latitude in managing their own affairs, including their own legal code (the Uniform Code of Military Justice23); the Federal courts’ customary reluctance to interfere with the chain of command’s management of good order and discipline; a high degree of discretion in the use of lethal force to accomplish assigned missions; and a set of benefits beyond the reach, or claim, of most citizens. The traditional deference to military management of military affairs is not absolute. Society, especially in a democratic political system, always reserves the right to intervene when it thinks that military values and practices should change to conform to public norms. Article I of the Constitution vests in the Congress the power and the authority “To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces,” and Article II vests chief command in the President of the United States.
Others outside the profession may claim equivalent or superior expertise, and challenge the “monopoly” of relevant knowledge that the recognized military profession has traditionally claimed and enjoyed. This can lead to jurisdictional disputes over who is a professional and who may legitimately provide certain services to the public.
In the second half of the 20th century, with the emergence of nuclear weapons, the purposes on which the military’s specialized knowledge focused were transformed, to include something that had never been even imagined by previous generations of military profes- sionals: nuclear deterrence. Nuclear deterrence appeared to many sol- diers as a condition analogous to traditional uses of military force, but it was qualitatively different because of the magnitude and imminence of continuous catastrop
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