Social Science / Sociology
Read the exemplary practice noted on page 16 in Partnerships In Preparedness – A Compendium of Exemplary Practices in Emergency Management Volume IV entitled "Neighborhood Emergency Team Outreach" and develop a response on what problems you might encounter with this program if these people are called upon to serve in an emergency or used in planning.
Response must be 350 words or more APA format. Utilize the attached as reference.
Federal Emergency Management Agency
A Compendium of Exemplary Practices in Emergency Management
PARTNERSHIPS IN PREPAREDNESS
This Compendium of Exemplary Practices in Emergency Management, Volume IV, is a product of the emergency management community working in partnership in service to the public. It is the result of FEMA’s continuing outreach initiative to identify the innovative ideas, emergency management talent, and abundant resources that exist throughout the country.
What is an exemplary practice? In the judgment of the emergency management partners who reviewed all entries for this edition, it is any idea, project, program, technique, or method in emergency management that has worked in one place and may be worthy of adopting elsewhere. This Compendium describes public- and private-sector emergency management practices that include unique coordination among organizations, volunteer projects, resource sharing, and other innovative approaches to emergency management.
In addition to describing the practices selected, the Compendium refers readers to knowl- edgeable individuals for further information. This book is not only being published in this printed format but is also available on the Internet at FEMA’s World Wide Web site.
In keeping with FEMA’s goals of building a strong and effective emergency management system, the search for exemplary practices is continuing. Instructions and a form for submitting additional innovative ideas can be found at the end of this volume, and we urge you to share your exemplary practices.
James Lee Witt Director Federal Emergency Management Agency
Kay C. Goss Associate Director for Preparedness Federal Emergency Management Agency
PARTNERSHIPS IN PREPAREDNESS
A Compendium of Exemplary Practices in Emergency Management
Federal Emergency Management Agency
James Lee Witt Director
Federal Emergency Management Agency
Kay C. Goss Associate Director
Federal Emergency Management Agency for the Preparedness Directorate
Many people contributed to this fourth edition of the Compendium. Their contributions include the critical executive support needed to make this initiative a reality: the memoranda, letters, and communications on the Internet encouraging nominations from throughout the emergency management community and the administrative tasks and correspondence involved in the nominations of exemplary practices in emergency management.
Under the policy guidance of Kay C. Goss, FEMA’s Associate Director for Preparedness, Partnerships in Preparedness was implemented in the Preparedness Outreach Division under the direction of Thomas R. McQuillan. The project officer during the development of this fourth edition was Maria A. Younker.
However, the many ideas, suggestions, and encouraging words of support received from people throughout the public and private sectors of the emergency management community have given the effort vitality. All of the individual State, Tribal, and local emergency managers whose support and nominations are a part of this edition are acknowledged as contact people in the body of the Compendium.
The Compendium is an example of interagency cooperation between FEMA and the U.S. Department of Justice’s National Institute of Justice (NIJ). NIJ’s assistance was instrumental in establishing and applying a model of information sharing among local, State, and Federal agencies.
The individuals listed below played direct roles in developing this edition. We wish to thank everyone associated with launching this initiative and helping it grow.
Federal Emergency Management Agency Headquarters Leadership Kay C. Goss Associate Director for Preparedness
Michael Armstrong Associate Director for Mitigation
Lacy E. Suiter Executive Associate Director for Response and Recovery
JoAnn Howard Administrator for Federal Insurance Administration
Carrye B. Brown Administrator for U.S. Fire Administration
Clay G. Hollister Executive Associate Director for Information Technology Services
Bruce Campbell Executive Associate Director for Operations Support
FEMA Regional Directors
Jeffrey A. Bean Region I
Lynn G. Canton Region II
Rita A. Calvan Region III
John B. Copenhaver Region IV
Dale W. Shipley Region V
Raymond L. Young Region VI
John A. Miller Region VII
Richard P. Weiland Region VIII
Martha Z. Whetstone Region IX
David L. de Courcy Region X
State, Tribal, and Local Partners
Elizabeth B. Armstrong, CAE International Association of Emergency Managers
Garry L. Briese, CAE International Association of Fire Chiefs
Trina Hembree National Emergency Management Association
Andrea A. Walter IOCAD Emergency Services Group
Heather Westra Prairie Island Indian Community
Morris Boone Office of Emergency Information and Media Affairs
Leo Bosner Response and Recovery Directorate
Elizabeth R. Edge Response and Recovery Directorate
Marilyn MacCabe Mitigation Directorate
William J. Troup U.S. Fire Administration
Kyle W. Blackman Preparedness Directorate
David M. Larimer Preparedness Directorate
Peggy Stahl Preparedness Directorate
National Institute of Justice
William A. Ballweber Raymond German John Schwarz Daniel Tompkins Robyn Towles Jeremy Travis
NIJ’s Information Clearinghouse Staff (Operated by Aspen Systems Corporation)
Rob Lee Becky Lewis Laura Mitchell Annie Pardo
Table of Contents
Foreword␣ ……………………………………………………………………………. Inside front cover
Acknowledgments␣ ……………………………………………………………………………………… iii
Introduction␣ …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
Exemplary Practices in Emergency Management␣ ………………………………………… 3
Indexes␣ ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 39
Program Contacts␣ …………………………………………………………………………………….. 41
Program Titles␣ ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 43
Program Subjects␣ ……………………………………………………………………………………… 45
Program Locations␣ …………………………………………………………………………………… 51
Appendix …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 53
Online Resources …………………………………………………………………………………….. 55
Introduction Dear Partners:
When dealing with disasters, we can accomplish more together as a group than as individuals. Natural disasters permeate every corner of our communities. No individual, business, or organization is left untouched. For this reason, communities need to work together to become better prepared. They need to take action before the next earthquake, flood, hurricane, wildfire, or hazardous materials incident occurs.
Since 1995 the Preparedness Directorate has been producing A Compendium of Exemplary Practices in Emergency Management. The objective of FEMA’s Compendium is to share information regarding innovative emergency man- agement programs that have worked well so that these programs can be adopted elsewhere. By disseminating information on exemplary practices that have worked, communities can better prepare themselves to respond to the diversity of natural or man-caused disasters.
This volume contains various exemplary practices detailing how some communities have built partnerships and implemented innovative programs to address specific areas of emergency management. It is FEMA’s goal that the methods and principles contained in this Compendium be applied in any community across the country to help build a safer and stronger America. By sharing your creative and innovative programs for dissemination through this Compendium to the emergency management community, we can create a network of “Partners in Preparedness.”
As we create this network, it is important to remember that all individuals have a vital role in protecting our communities from the effects of disasters. It has become evident by our Nation’s real-world events that emergency management preparedness is necessary at all age levels of our society. Integrating emergency management aware- ness education in our school curriculum promotes the development of an effective, comprehensive emergency management infrastructure. We have included in this volume of the Compendium several exemplary practices that are geared toward school-age youth in their primary and secondary years of study.
Project Impact is FEMA’s initiative to help communities build capabilities to reduce the effects of disasters. The efforts undertaken by the Project Impact Communities are commendable and I am pleased that several of these communities are recognized in this volume of the Compendium.
Also, this year I am pleased to recognize that the Compendium includes an exemplary practice from one of our Tribal Government partners, the Prairie Island Indian Community. I have placed this exemplary practice first in the “Exemplary Practices in Emergency Management” section to recognize the unique relationship between Native American Tribal Governments and the United States Government. I hope to expand the Compendium to include a section for Tribal Governments in future volumes.
A panel of our partners from the public and private emergency management community reviewed all of the practices included in this volume; the practices have been certified as accurate by the submitters. FEMA is not responsible for misinformation.
All four volumes of the Compendium are also published on the Internet at www.fema.gov/library/lib07.htm.
The organization of this document responds to FEMA’s goal to inform all interested individuals of innovative and promising approaches to emergency management. The sections are organized alphabetically by the State from which the exemplary practice was nominated. Under each State listing, the programs are organized alphabetically by project name. Each program listing provides data in the following categories: name of the program, contact person’s name, address, e-mail address where available, phone, and fax numbers; program type; population targeted by the program; program setting; startup date; description of the program; evaluation information; annual
budget; sources of funding; and in some cases, additional sources for information. The categories are highlighted to help the reader peruse each listing for specific data. For example, check the Program Type description to get a quick overview of the program’s purpose. Read the Program Description to learn more about the program’s goals and operations. Check the Evaluation Information for indicators of its success.
Four indexes enable the readers to locate key information:
• Contact. The names of the program contacts are listed in alphabetical order to enable the reader to easily identify the individuals to write to or call for further information.
• Title. The program titles are listed in alphabetical order. • Subject. Most programs have been indexed to more than a single subject heading. Subject headings include
aspects such as the type of problem being addressed by the program (e.g., earthquakes, hurricanes), the pro- gram type (e.g., damage assessment), and solutions to problems (e.g., evacuation routes, emergency response teams).
• Location. This index enhances the Table of Contents by indicating the cities and counties within a State covered by the program. If a program is multistate, that information is listed first under the name of each involved State. If the program is operating throughout a single State, that information is provided next.
I hope that this Compendium is effective in helping you to take a step toward building a safer and stronger emer- gency management community in your neighborhood. With your dedication and involvement, we can work to prepare ourselves for tomorrow and build a more disaster-resistant America today.
I urge you to share your exemplary practices! We look forward to hearing from you.
Kay C. Goss Associate Director for Preparedness
Exemplary Practices in Emergency Management
PRAIRIE ISLAND INDIAN COMMUNITY
Prairie Island Fire Engine Deployment
Contact: Heather Westra Emergency Planner Prairie Island Indian
Community 5636 Sturgeon Lake Road Welch, MN 55089 Tel: 651–385–2554, ext. 4285 Fax: 651–385–4110
Program Type: Fire prevention.
Target Population: Approximately 150 residents of the Prairie Island Indian Community and visitors to the Treasure Island Resort and Casino.
Project Startup Date: 1999.
Program Description: The community is located on an island in the Mississippi River and is acces- sible by only one paved road, bisected by a railroad line. A train derailment or other road closure would result in the community’s becoming isolated from fire protection by the Red Wing Fire Department, which is located approxi- mately 13 miles away.
To prepare for such an emergency, the community has obtained a surplus fire engine and is training volunteers to respond. Community members are being trained as volunteer firefighters and they have been taught how to deploy the vehicle in the event of an emergency, which results in increased response capability and community involvement.
The fire engine was obtained by using U.S. Government surplus procedures. It is also available for use by the Red Wing Fire Department on request.
Evaluation Information: The Red Wing Fire Department has expressed gratitude for the additional equipment and assistance.
Annual Budget: Estimated at less than $2,000.
Sources of Funding: This program is funded through Prairie Island Indian Community revenue.
Contact: Terry Gray Arkansas Office of Emergency
Services P.O. Box 758 Conway, AR 72033 Tel: 501–730–9798 Fax: 501–730–9853 E-mail: [email protected] adem.state.ar.us
Program Type: Flood mitigation.
Target Population: Residents of the city of McGehee.
Setting: Residential area east of and adjacent to Black Pond Slough.
Project Startup Date: November 1995.
Program Description: McGehee residents living east of and adjacent to Black Pond Slough had experienced flooding numerous times in the previous 10 years, with approxi- mately 25 houses incurring damages in excess of $1.1 million, or an annual average of $150,000. Following severe flooding and designation of the neigh- borhood as a Federal and State disaster area on January 27, 1994, the city of McGehee surveyed local residents about flood damage and came up with a plan to mitigate future damage.
The city built a 17-acre detention basin to the west of the affected subdivision, as well as a containment levee on the east side of Black Pond Slough and the north side of the detention basin. Storm water flows into the detention basin and remains there until water in Black Pond Slough recedes. At that point, a storm water pump with the capacity to empty the 5-foot deep basin in 48 hours discharges water back into the slough. The system also reduces flood- water infiltration into the McGehee sewer system and damage to city streets.
The facility was completed in October 1998 and received its first test in January 1999 when 8.3 inches of rain fell in McGehee over a 3-day span. No homes were flooded and the detention facility averted an estimated $200,000 in damages.
Arkansas is currently helping North Little Rock and Helena to construct similar facilities.
Annual Budget: $1,000 for maintenance.
Sources of Funding: FEMA provided 75 percent ($436,500) of needed funds, with State and local agencies contributing the remaining 25 percent ($72,500 each).
Black Pond Slough Detention Facility
Clay County Earthquake Preparedness and Mitigation Program
Contact: Judge Gary Howell 151 South Second Avenue Piggott, AR 72454 Tel: 870–598–2667 Fax: 870–598–5592
Program Type: Earthquake mitigation.
Target Population: Residents of Clay County, Arkansas.
Project Startup Date: September 1997.
Program Description: The Clay County Disaster Resistant Community Council, a voluntary organi- zation, uses its members’ networking skills to promote earthquake prepared- ness and mitigation in an area that lies atop the New Madrid fault. More than 4,000 minor earthquakes, most too small to be felt, have been detected in the area since monitoring instruments were installed in 1974. Chances of an earth- quake registering 6.0 or greater on the Richter scale occurring before 2000 have been estimated at 50 percent, and before 2040 at 90 percent.
Council members focus their efforts on meeting goals of safety and earthquake preparedness for schools, hospitals, and businesses, and citizen awareness and education. Toward those ends, the council has leveraged more than $3 million in grants and completed the following projects:
• Installed earthquake-sensitive gas valves in all county school buildings. • Completed a seismic engineering survey for the Piggott and Central Clay
County school districts.
• Approved seismic retrofits for those two school districts. • Completed applications for seismic retrofit grants for Corning School
District and Piggott Hospital.
• Developed a Clay County Hazard Assessment and Hazard Mitigation Plan. Evaluation Information FEMA has named Clay County and its three largest cities—Corning, Piggott, and Rector—a Project Impact community. Only one city or county in each State receives this designation, which means FEMA provides technical assistance and support.
Annual Budget: None given.
Sources of Funding: FEMA grants have provided the majority of project funding. The council is seeking other funding sources, including a 12.5-percent local match.
Los Angeles Unified School District Earthquake and Safe Schools Training
Contact: Dan Austin Chief of Staff/Assistant
Superintendent Los Angeles Unified School
District 450 North Grand Avenue Los Angeles, CA 90012 Tel: 213–625–6251 Fax: 213–485–0321 E-mail: [email protected] lausd.k12.ca.us
Program Type: Training.
Target Population: Los Angeles Unified School District staff.
Setting: Throughout the school district.
Project Startup Date: 1995.
Program Description: During two Shake Days held in November and April each year, every school in the Los Angeles Unified School District responds to a scenario involving a 6.0-magnitude earthquake that result in injuries, death, chemical spills, and other hazards. Students participate in drills, while school system employees enact their roles as members of teams for first aid, search and rescue, student assembly, fire suppression, security, and other tasks. All schools in the system maintain 72-hour supplies of food and water and a large cargo container filled with earthquake preparedness supplies, including search and rescue and first aid kits. These enactments allow school system employees to exercise the annual training they receive on rapid, effective response in the aftermath of a major earthquake or other disaster.
The training program is held each year in 27 locations convenient to the system’s clusters of schools, and includes the use of updated training manuals and videos. In addition to the annual training, staff also hold a monthly discussion on a specific safety preparedness topic as part of faculty meetings.
Staff have not yet had to use the training in the aftermath of an actual earth- quake, but several schools have had occasion to apply the training to other emergency situations, including school lockdowns following bank robbery attempts in which gunfire had crossed campuses.
School districts across the Nation have requested materials and assistance to use in modifying this training, which prepares all adult employees to protect and shelter students in the event of a major disaster. The training was devel- oped by the school district’s Office of the Superintendent, Office of Emergency Services, and Professional Development Collaborative/Office of Instructional Services. It also included contributions by the offices of Environmental Health and Safety, Maintenance and Operations, Communications, and School Mental Health, as well as the State of California Division of the State Architect. The content and procedural model of the training was based on earthquake preparedness training from the National Emergency Training Center in Emmitsburg, Maryland.
Evaluation Information: After receiving training, 95 percent of participants evaluated the program as “excellent.”
Annual Budget: $1.2 million.
Sources of Funding: School district operating budget.
Montecito Emergency Response and Recovery Action Group (MERRAG)
Contact: Herb McElwee Chief Montecito Fire Protection
District 595 San Ysidro Road Santa Barbara, CA 93108 Tel: 805–969–7762 Fax: 805–969–3598 E-mail: [email protected] montecitofire.com
Program Type: Mutual self-help organization.
Target Population: In addition to the 13,000 resi- dents of Montecito, a seasonal tourist and student population.
Project Startup Date: 1987.
Program Description: MERRAG uses the resources of its members and the community at large for cooperative community disaster recovery response within the critical first 72 hours. Initially formed by the Montecito Fire, Water, and Sanitary Districts, the group has since expanded to take in large private institutions, homeowners’ associations, and individuals as members.
MERRAG’s goals are to:
• Support the Fire District in its response to life-threatening situations. • Coordinate support activities with outside emergency services agencies. • Muster and organize local resources. • Maintain a reliable communication system. • Train District staff and community volunteers in disaster preparedness and
• Minimize property damage. • Provide assistance in qualifying for disaster relief funds. The group demonstrated its ability to meet these goals during the 1997 and 1998 El Niño floods, which caused damage throughout the community. MERRAG provided such services as traffic control where trees were downed and preparation and delivery of sandbags to homes threatened by flooding. MERRAG also offers ongoing training through monthly meetings and special training events.
The group became incorporated as a private nonprofit corporation in 1993, receiving a charitable designation from California and a 501(c)(3) designa- tion from the Internal Revenue Service. This allows MERRAG to solicit tax- deductible donations, which have been used to purchase equipment and other resources.
Evaluation Information: MERRAG was honored by the Montecito Association for its efforts during the 1997 and 1998 El Niño floods. Project Impact coordinators approached MERRAG and invited the organization to become a partner in Project Impact. The organization was asked to partner as an example of how a community can coordinate together to prepare for and recover from disasters.
Annual Budget: $2,000 for supplies.
Sources of Funding: Institutions, homeowners’ associations, and individuals pay membership fees to cover the annual budget. Donations cover additional expenses.
Public Education and Professional Outreach Programs for Disaster Preparedness
Contact: Russell C. Coile Disaster Coordinator/Emer-
gency Program Manager Pacific Grove Fire Department 600 Pine Avenue Pacific Grove, CA 93950–3317 Tel: 831–648–3110 Fax: 831–648–3107 E-mail: [email protected]
Program Type: Public education and profes- sional outreach.
Target Population: Residents of Pacific Grove.
Project Startup Date: 1990.
Program Description: The Pacific Grove Fire Department has developed comprehensive programs for educating local residents about disaster preparedness, including specific programs that focus on earthquakes, fire safety, other natural disasters, and oil spills.
Through its materials and presentations, the department promotes 72-hour self-sufficiency for local residents by encouraging them to keep supplies of medicine, food, drinking water, flashlights, and other essentials on hand. Another program, “Oil Spill!”, is a four-act dramatization of the incident command system and how it operates during a spill incident. The fire depart- ment uses a portable two-story model house built to scale for a 6-year-old child to teach local kindergarten students about earthquake and fire safety. It also offers a 6-week training program for adult Volunteers in Preparedness (VIPs), the local community emergency response teams.
In the past 10 years, numerous presentations have been given to such groups as the Lions, Kiwanis, and Rotary clubs; the Pacific Grove Chamber of Com- merce; the Pacific Grove School District; retirement communities and senior centers; homeowners’ associations; the Boy Scouts; and the police depart- ment’s Citizens’ Police Academy.
Evaluation Information: The fire department’s emergency program manager has presented papers on programs at conferences given by various State, national, and international professional societies.
Annual Budget: $2,000 for disaster preparedness literature.
Sources of Funding: Pacific Grove funds the ongoing program through its annual budget. The model house was built using a FEMA grant at a cost of $42,000.
School-Based Disaster Mental Health Services for Children in the Laguna Beach Firestorm
Contact: Merritt D. Schreiber, Ph.D. Clinical Psychologist Children and Youth Mental
Health Services Orange County Health Care
Agency 3115 Redhill Avenue Costa Mesa, CA 92626 Tel: 949–499–5346 Fax: 714–850–8492 E-mail: [email protected]
Program Type: Crisis counseling.
Target Population: Children and adolescents exposed to the Laguna Beach firestorm and their families.
Setting: All schools in Laguna Beach.
Project Startup Date: October 1993.
Program Description: On October 27, 1993, Santa Ana winds in excess of 45 miles per hour fanned an arson-induced fire into a firestorm that caused the evacuation of the entire city of Laguna Beach. The fire, which burned 16,682 acres, destroyed 366 homes while damaging 84 more. Residents were unable to return to their homes for 3 days, and schools were closed for an additional 5 days.
The Laguna Beach United School District asked Children and Youth Mental Health Services of Orange County to develop continuing mental health serv- ices to help children and adolescents cope with post-traumatic stress in the aftermath of the firestorm. These youth had to cope with events that included seeing flames and burning homes; being evacuated from schools and homes; being separated from parents for periods ranging up to 18 hours; trying to save parents, homes, neighbors, and pets; inability to return home to rescue pets or retrieve belongings; and losing their own homes or knowing someone who lost their home.
Using a collaborative school-based model, a partnership that included schools, the Orange County Health Agency, and private corporations provided services to parents and children at each school that included crisis assessment; indi- vidual, family, parent, group, and school counseling services; bilingual serv- ices; and specialized outreach to minority populations. Between October 27, 1993, and March 30, 1995, services were provided to approximately 500 children.
Annual Budget: None given.
Sources of Funding: FEMA and the Emergency Services Disaster Relief Branch at the U.S. Depart- ment of Health and Human Services, Center for Mental Health Services.
Adopt a House
Contact: Ronald J. Ruback Hazard Mitigation Coordinator City of Deerfield Beach 150 Northeast Second Avenue Deerfield Beach, FL 33441 Tel: 954–480–4249 Fax: 954–422–5812 E-mail: [email protected] deerfieldbch.com
Program Type: Home renovation.
Target Population: Low-income senior citizens.
Setting: Deerfield Beach.
Project Startup Date: 1998.
Program Description: The Adopt a House program provides storm shutters for the homes of low- income senior citizens. Local businesses adopt houses and pay for the shutters, which are installed by local high school students (who earn credit toward community service activity requirements) and employees of the businesses. These companies also provide drink and food for the volunteer workers.
To date, seven houses and one daycare center have received shutters under the program. Shutters for the first group of homes were insta