Recidivism, or a criminal offender's tendency to reoffend, is an important issue for criminologists. Select one criminological theory and A) explain why convicted felons who are returning to their communities would be likely to recidivate, being sure to explain why the factors included in the theory specifically influence offenders, and B) using the same theory and its concepts, discuss a policy or program you could propose to reduce recidivism.
You must choose one and answer it in a minimum of 3 pages , 12-point font, double-spaced, and 1-inch margins on all sides.
The essay must be written on a graduate level. Students must be conscious of structure, organization, and mechanics of style. Students must use correct in-text citations in APA format and include a reference page with all cited sources in APA format.
In addition to the sources read for this course, you are to utilize an additional 2 scholarly sources to answer the question. Students may find and use additional citations from scholarly resources through the library or google scholar. A good place to check for additional readings is the Theory Reading List I have provided under Week 1 and Week 17.
All exams will be screened through Turnitin for similarities. The professor has the discretion to determine if the exam submitted contains copied work from previously written work or written work without citation which may result in failing. The same rubric that is used to grade the comprehensive exam will be used for this final exam. See below.
Each student’s performance will be scored in five categories on a five point scale.
The minimum successful score will be “Competent” or better, with no score being “Unacceptable”.
Understanding of Questions
Response to Questions
5 = Exemplary
Responds incisively and directly to the questions asked.
Responses to questions are specific, defendable, and complex.
Provides substantial, well- chosen evidence (research or textual citations) used strategically.
Responses contain appropriate, clear and adequate transitions between sentences and paragraphs.
Apt and precise diction, syntactic variety, clear command of Standard English.
4 = Strong
Most responses are direct and relevant to the questions asked.
Responses to question are more general, but still accurate; analyses go beyond the obvious.
Provides sufficient and appropriate evidence and, makes effort to contextualize it.
Responses contain distinct units of thought in paragraphs, coherently arranged; occasional weakness in transitions between sentences, paragraphs or thoughts.
Some mechanical difficulties; occasional problematic word choices or awkward syntax errors; occasional grammar errors; some wordiness.
3 = Competent
Responds adequately to the questions asked; occasionally responds with unrelated information.
Responses to questions are overly general and disorganized; may have some factual, interpretive, or conceptual errors.
Provides some evidence but not always relevant, sufficient, or integrated into the response.
Responses are uneven; paragraphs sometimes effective, but others are brief, weakly unified, or undeveloped; some awkward or missing transitions between thoughts.
Occasional major grammar errors (e.g., agreement, tense); frequent minor grammar errors (e.g., prepositions, articles); occasional imprecise diction; awkward syntax; wordiness.
2 = Marginal
Confuses some significant concepts in the questions asked.
Responses to questions are vague or irrelevant.
Evidence usually only narrative or anecdotal; awkwardly or incorrectly incorporated.
Frequent major and minor grammar problems; frequent imprecise diction; wordiness; awkward syntax; repetitive sentence patterns; problems impede meaning.
1 = Unacceptable
Does not understand questions and/or concepts.
No discernable response to most questions given.
Little or no evidence cited to support responses.
Responses are arbitrary or not structured, illogical or not coherent.
Numerous grammatical errors and stylistic problems; English overwhelmingly
non- Standard; errors in every sentence
Theory Reading List
I also recommend searching top criminology journals, including Criminology, Justice Quarterly, Critical Criminology, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Crime and Delinquency, Feminist Criminology, and more. These are all available online through the library.
· Beccaria, Cesare. 1819. “Of Crimes and Punishments”. In Classics of Criminology (pp.406-414), edited by Joseph E. Jacoby, Theresa A. Severance, and Alan S. Bruce. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
· Gialopsos, Brooke Miller. 2010. “Cornish, Derek B., and Ronald V. Clarke: Rational Choice Theory.” In Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory (pp.215-220), edited by Francis T. Cullen and Pamela Wilcox. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
· Maxwell, Christopher D., Joel H. Garner, and Jeffrey A. Fagan. 2002. “Preventive Effects of Arrest on Intimate Partner Violence: Research, Policy and Theory.” Criminology 2(1): 51-80.
· Nagin, Daniel S. 2013. “Deterrence: A Review of the Evidence by a Criminologist for Economists.” Annual Review of Economics 5:1, 83-105.
· Pratt, Travis C., Francis T. Cullen, Kristie R. Blevins, Leah E. Daigle, and Tamara D. Madensen. 2009. “The Empirical Status of Deterrence Theory: A Meta-Analysis”. In Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory (pp.367-396), edited by Francis T. Cullen, John Paul Wright, and Kristie R. Blevins. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
· Akers, Ronald L. 1990. “Rational Choice, Deterrence, and Social Learning Theory in Criminology: The Path Not Taken”. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 81.3: 653-676.
· Cohen, Lawrence and Marcus Felson. 1979. “Social Change and Crime Rate Trends: A Routine Activity Approach.” American Sociological Review, 44, 588-608.
· Paternoster, Ray and Greg Pogarsky. 2009. “Rational Choice, Agency and Thoughtfully Reflective Decision Making: The Short and Long-Term Consequences of Making Good Choices.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 25:103–127.
· Cohen, Lawrence, James Kluegel and Kenneth Land. 1981. “Social Inequality and Predatory Criminal Victimization: An Exposition and Test of a Formal Theory.” American Sociological Review, 46, 505-524.
· Tonry, Michael. 2008. “Learning from the Limitations of Deterrence Research.” Crime and Justice 37:279-311
· Loughran Thomas A., Raymond Paternoster, Aaron Chalfin A, Theodore Wilson. 2016. “Can Rational Choice be Considered a General Theory Of Crime? Evidence from Individual-Level Panel Data”. Criminology 54:86–112.
· Matsueda, Ross L., Derek A. Kreager, and David Huizinga. 2006. “Deterring Delinquents: A Rational Choice Model of Theft and Violence.” American Sociological Review 71:95-122.
· Beccalossi, Chiara. 2010. “Lombroso, Cesara: The Criminal Man” In Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory (pp.560-565), edited by Francis T. Cullen and Pamela Wilcox. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
· Massey, Douglas S. 2015. “Brave New World of Biosocial Science” Criminology 53(1): 127-131.
· Hanser, Robert D. 2010. “Raine, Adrian: Crime as a Disorder” In Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory (pp.768-771), edited by Francis T. Cullen and Pamela Wilcox. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
· Tibbetts, Stephen G. and Alex R. Piquero. 1999 “The Influence of Gender, Low Birth Weight and Disadvantaged Environment in Predicting Early Onset of Offending: A Test of Moffitt's Interactional Hypothesis.” Criminology 37(4): 843-877.
· Laub, John H. and Robert J. Sampson. 1988. “Unraveling Families and Delinquency: A Reanalysis of the Gluecks' Data.” Criminology 26(3):355-380.
· Arseneault, L., Tremblay, R. E., Boulerice, B., Seguin, J. R., & Saucier, J. (2000). Minor physical anomalies and family adversity as risk factors for adolescent violent delinquency. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 917–923.
· Bartol, C., & Bartol, A. (2007). Criminal behavior: A psychosocial approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
· Bufkin, J. L., & Luttrell, V. R. (2005). Neuroimaging studies of aggressive and violent behavior: Current findings and implications for criminology and criminal justice. Trauma, Violence, and Abuse, 6, 176–191.
· Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and lifecourse-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674–701.
· Moffitt, T. E., & Walsh, A. (2003). The adolescencelimited/life-course-persistent theory of antisocial behavior: What have we learned? In A. Walsh & L. Ellis (Eds.), Biosocial criminology: Challenging environmentalism’s supremacy (pp. 125–144). Hauppage, NY: Nova Science.
· Raine, A. (1993). The psychopathology of crime: Criminal behavior as a clinical disorder. New York: Academic Press.
· Vaughn, M. G. (2016). Policy implications of biosocial criminology. Criminology & Public Policy, 15(3), 703-710.
· Walsh, Anthony and Kevin M. Beaver. 2008. Biosocial Criminology: New Directions in Theory and Research. New York, NY: Routledge.
· Rocque, M., & Posick, C. (2017). Paradigm shift or normal science? the future of (biosocial) criminology. Theoretical Criminology, 21(3), 288-303.
· Rocque, M., Welsh, B. C., & Raine, A. (2012). Biosocial criminology and modern crime prevention. Journal of Criminal Justice, 40(4), 3065.
· Burt, C. H., & Simons, R. L. (2014). Pulling Back The Curtain On Heritability Studies: Biosocial Criminology In The Postgenomic Era. Criminology, 52(2), 223-262.
· Hughes, N. (2015). Understanding the influence of neurodevelopmental disorders on offending: Utilizing developmental psychopathology in biosocial criminology. Criminal Justice Studies, 28(1), 39.
· Raine, A. (2002). Biosocial studies of antisocial and violent behavior in children and adults: A review. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30(4), 311-326.
· Fox, B. (2017). It's nature and nurture: Integrating biology and genetics into the social learning theory of criminal behavior. Journal of Criminal Justice, 49, 22-31.
· Nedelec, J. L., Park, I., & Silver, I. A. (2016). The effect of the maturity gap on delinquency and drug use over the life course: A genetically sensitive longitudinal design. Journal of Criminal Justice, 47, 84-91,95-99.
· Kubrin, Charis E. 2010. “Shaw, Clifford R. and Henry D. McKay: Social Disorganization Theory” In Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory (pp.827-834), edited by Francis T. Cullen and Pamela Wilcox. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
· Sampson, Robert J. and Byron Groves. 1989. “Community Structure and Crime: Testing Social Disorganization Theory.” American Journal of Sociology 94:774-802.
· Sampson, Robert J. 2012. “The Theory of Collective Efficacy.” In Great American City: Chicago and the Enduring Neighborhood Effect (pp.149-178). University of Chicago Press.
· Burchfield, Keri B. and Eric Silver. 2013. “Collective Efficacy and Crime in Los Angeles Neighborhoods: Implications for the Latino Paradox” Sociological Inquiry 83(1): 154-176.
· Bursik, Robert J., Jr. 1988. "Social Disorganization and Theories of Crime and Delinquency: Problems and Prospects." Criminology 26:519-552.
· Sampson, Robert J. Stephen Raudenbush, and Felton Earls. 1997. “Neighborhoods and Violent Crime: A Multi-Level Study of Collective Efficacy.” Science 277:918-24.
· Warner, Barbara D. and Robert J. Sampson. 2015. “Social Disorganization, Collective Efficacy, and Macro-Level Theories of Social Control.” Advances in Criminological Theory 19:215-34.
· Matsueda, Ross L. 2006. “Differential Social Organization, Collective Action, and Crime.” Crime, Law and Social Change 46:3-33.
· Kirk, David S. and Andrew V. Papachristos. 2015. “Concentrated Disadvantage, the Persistence of Legal Cynicism, and Crime: Revisiting the Conception of ‘Culture’ in Criminology.” Advances in Criminological Theory 19:259-274.
· Shaw, Clifford, and Henry H. McKay. 1931. Juvenile Delinquency in Urban Areas. University of Chicago Press.
· Bursik, Robert J. Jr. and Harold G. Grasmick. 1993. Neighborhoods and Crime: The Dimensions of Effective Community Control. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books.
· Kirk, David S. and Mauri Matsuda. 2011. “Legal Cynicism, Collective Efficacy, and the Ecology of Arrest”. Criminology 49.2: 443-472.
· Kirk, David S. “Prisoner Reentry and the Reproduction of Legal Cynicism”. Social Problems 63: 222-243.
· Sampson, Robert J. 2009. “Collective Efficacy Theory: Lessons Learned and Directions for Future Inquiry”. In Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory (pp.149-167), edited by Francis T. Cullen, John Paul Wright, and Kristie R. Blevins. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
· Peterson, Ruth D., Lauren J. Krivo, and Christopher R. Browning. 2009. “Segregation and Race/Ethnic Inequality in Crime: New Directions”. In Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory (pp.169-187), edited by Francis T. Cullen, John Paul Wright, and Kristie R. Blevins. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
· Hipp, John R. 2011. “Spreading the Wealth: The Effect of the Distribution of Income and Race/Ethnicity Across Household and Neighborhoods on City Crime Trajectories”. Criminology 49.3: 631-665.
· Hwang, Jackelyn and Robert J. Sampson. 2014. “Divergent Pathways of Gentrification: Racial Inequality and the Social Order of Renewal in Chicago Neighborhoods”. American Sociological Review 79.4: 726-751.
· Steenbeek, Wouter and John R. Hipp. 2011. “A Longitudinal Test of Social Disorganization Theory: Feedback Effects Among Cohesion, Social Control, and Disorder”. Criminology 49.3: 833-871.
· Sampson, Robert J. 2008. “Moving to Inequality: Neighborhood Effects and Experiments Meet Social Structure”. American Journal of Sociology 114.1: 189-231.
· De Coster, Stacy, Karen Heimer, and Stacy M. Wittrock. 2006. “Neighborhood Disadvantage, Social Capital, Street Context, and Youth Violence”. The Sociological Quarterly 47: 723-753.
· Sampson, Robert J., Jeffrey D. Morenoff, and Thomas Gannon-Rowley. 2002. “”Assessing ‘Neighborhood Effects’: Social Processes and New Directions in Research”. Annual Review of Sociology 28: 443-478.
· Kubrin, Charis E. and Ronald Weitzer. 2003. “New Directions in Social Disorganization Theory”. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 40.4: 374-402.
· Papachristos, Andrew V., Chris M. Smith, Mary L. Scherer, and Melissa A. Fugiero. 2011. “More Coffee, Less Crime? The Relationship between Gentrification and Neighborhood Crime Rates in Chicago, 1991 to 2005”. City and Community 10.3: 215-240.
· Cohen, Lawrence E. and Marcus Felson. 1979. “Social Change and Crime: A Routine Activity Approach”. In Classics of Criminology (pp.45-53), edited by Joseph E. Jacoby, Theresa A. Severance, and Alan S. Bruce. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
· Leukfeldt, Eric Rutger and Majid Yar. 2016. “Applying Routine Activity Theory to Cybercrime: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis”, Deviant Behavior, 37:3, 263-280.
· Kelling, George L. and James Q. Wilson. 1982. “Broken Windows: The Police and Neighborhood Safety” Atlantic Monthly 249 (3), 29-38.
· Welsh BC, Braga AA, Bruinsma GJN. 2015. Reimagining Broken Windows: From Theory to Policy. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. 52(4):447-463.
· Sparks, Tony. 2018. “Reproducing Disorder: The Effects of Broken Windows Policing on Homeless People with Mental Illness in San Francisco” Social Justice 45(2/3): 51-74.
· Apel, Robert and Julie Horney. 2017. “How and Why Does Work Matter? Employment Conditions, Routine Activities, and Crime Among Adult Male Offenders”. Criminology 55.2: 307-343.
· Sherman, Lawrence W., Patrick R. Gartin and Michael E. Buerger. 1989. “Hot Spots Of Predatory Crime: Routine Activities And The Criminology Of Place”. Criminology 27.1: 27-56.
· Miller, J. (2013). Individual offending, routine activities, and activity settings: Revisiting the routine activity theory of general deviance. The Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 50(3), 390.
· Pratt, T. C., Holtfreter, K., & Reisig, M. D. (2010). Routine online activity and internet fraud targeting: Extending the generality of routine activity theory. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 47(3), 267-296.
· Hollis, M. E., Felson, M., & Welsh, B. C. (2013). The capable guardian in routine activities theory: A theoretical and conceptual reappraisal. Crime Prevention and Community Safety, 15(1), 65-79.
· Bunch, J., Clay-Warner, J., & Lei, M. (2015). Demographic characteristics and victimization risk: Testing the mediating effects of routine activities. Crime and Delinquency, 61(9), 1181-1205.
· Braga, Anthony A. and Brenda J. Bond. 2008. “Policing Crime And Disorder Hot Spots: A Randomized Controlled Trial”. Criminology 46.3: 577-607.
· Sampson, Robert J. and Stephen W. Raudenbush. 1999. “Systematic Social Observation of Public Spaces: A New Look at Disorder in Urban Neighborhoods.” American Journal of Sociology 105(3): 603-651.
· Sampson, R. J., & Raudenbush, S. W. (2004). Seeing disorder: Neighborhood stigma and the social construction of "broken windows". Social Psychology Quarterly, 67(4), 319-342.
· Osgood, D. Wayne, Janet K. Wilson, Patrick M. O’Malley, Jerald G. Bachman & Lloyd D. Johnson. 1996. Routine Activities and Individual Deviant Behavior. American Sociological Review 61 (4): 635-55.
· Merton, Robert K. 1938. “Social Structure and Anomie”. American Sociological Review 3.5: 672-682.
· Broidy, Lisa M. 2001. “A Test of General Strain Theory”. Criminology 39.1: 9-36.
· Messner, Steven F. and Richard Rosenfeld. 2013. Crime and the American Dream. Wadsworth.
· Savolainen, Jukka. 2000. “Inequality, Welfare State, and Homicide: Further Support for Institutional Anomie Theory” Criminology 38(4): 1021-1042.
· Agnew, Robert. 1985. “A Revised Strain Theory of Delinquency”. Social Forces 64.1: 151-167.
· Agnew, Robert. 1992. “Foundation for a General Strain Theory of Crime and Delinquency”. Criminology 30.1: 47-87.
· Durkheim, Emile. 1951. “Suicide”. In Classics of Criminology (pp.235-240), edited by Joseph E. Jacoby, Theresa A. Severance, and Alan S. Bruce. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
· Agnew, Robert. 2009. “General Strain Theory: Current Status and Directions for Further Research”. In Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory (pp.101-123), edited by Francis T. Cullen, John Paul Wright, and Kristie R. Blevins. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
· Messner, Robert F. and Richard Rosenfeld. 2009. “The Present and Future of Institutional-Anomie Theory”. In Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory (pp.127-148), edited by Francis T. Cullen, John Paul Wright, and Kristie R. Blevins. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
· Agnew, Robert and Helene Raskin White. 1992. “An Empirical Test of General Strain Theory”. Criminology 30.4: 475-499.
· Messner, Steven F. and Richard Rosenfeld. 1997. “Political Restraint of the Market and Levels of Criminal Homicide: A Cross-National Application of Institutional-Anomie Theory”. Social Forces 75.4: 1393-1416.
· Agnew, Robert, Timothy Brezina, John Paul Wright, and Francis T. Cullen. 2002. “Strain, Personality Traits, and Delinquency: Extending General Strain Theory”. Criminology 40.1: 43-71.
· Slocum, Lee Ann, Sally S. Simpson, and Douglas A. Smith. 2005. “Strained Lives and Crime: Examining Intra-Individual Variation in Strain and Offending in a Sample of Incarcerated Women”. Criminology 43.4: 1067-1110.
· Messner, Steven F. Helmut Thome, and Richard Rosenfeld. 2008. “Institutions, Anomie, and Violent Crime: Clarifying and Elaborating Institutional-Anomie Theory”. International Journal of Conflict and Violence 2.2: 163-181.
· De Coster, Stacy and Lisa Kort-Butler. 2006. “How General is General Strain Theory? Assessing Determinacy and Indeterminacy across Life Domains”. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 43.4: 297-325.
· De Coster, Stacy and Rena Cornell Zito. 2010. “Gender and General Strain Theory: The Gendering of Emotional Experiences and Expressions”. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 26.2: 224-245.
· Agnew, Robert. 2012. “Reflection on ‘A Revised Strain Theory of Delinquency’”. Social Forces 91.1: 33-38.
· Kaufman, Joanne M., Cesar J. Rebellon, Sherod Thaxton, and Robert Agnew. 2008. “A General Strain Theory of Racial Differences in Criminal Offending”. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology 41.3: 421-437.
· Moon, Byongook, Kraig Hays, and David Blurton. 2009. “General Strain Theory, Key Strains, and Deviance”. Journal of Criminal Justice 37: 98-106.
· Bernard, Thomas J. 1987. “Testing Structural Strain Theories.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 24:262-280.
· Chamlin, Mitchell B. and John K. Cochran. 1995. “Assessing Messner and Rosenfield’s Institutional Anomie Theory: A Partial Test.” Criminology 33:411-429.
· Menard, Scott. 1995. “A Developmental Test of Mertonian Anomie Theory. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 32:136-174.
· Cloward, Richard. 1959. “Illegitimate Means, Anomie, and Deviant Behavior.” American Sociological Review 24:164-176.
· Kubrin, Charis E., Tim Wadsworth, and Stephanie DiPietro. 2006. “Deindustrialization, Disadvantage, and Suicide Among Young Black Males” Social Forces 84:1559-1578.
· Featherstone, Richard and Mathieu Deflem. 2003. “Anomie and Strain: Context and Consequence of Merton’s Two Theories.” Sociological Inquiry 73:471-89.
· Agnew, Robert, Timothy Brezina, John Paul Wright, and Francis T. Cullen. 2002. “Strain, Personality Traits, and Delinquency: Extending General Strain Theory” Criminology 40:43-72.
· Cullen, Francis T. 2010. “Cloward, Richard A., and Lloyd E. Ohlin: Delinquency and Opportunity” In Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory (pp.170-174), edited by Francis T. Cullen and Pamela Wilcox. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
· Joe, K., & Chesney-Lind, M. (1995). "Just Every Mother's Angel": An Analysis of Gender and Ethnic Variations in Youth Gang Membership. Gender and Society, 9(4), 408-431.
· Anderson, Elijah. 1998. “The Social Ecology of Youth Violence” Crime and Justice 24: 65-104.
· Matsueda, Ross, Kevin Drakulich and Charles Kubrin. 2006. Race and Neighborhood Codes of Violence. In The Many Colors of Crime: Inequalities of Race, Ethnicity, and Crime in America (pp.334-356), edited by Ruth D. Peterson, Lauren J. Krivo, and John Hagan. New York University Press.
· Cohen, Albert K. 1955. Delinquent Boys: The Culture of the Gang. Free Press.
· Cloward, Richard A. and Lloyd E. Ohlin. 1966. Delinquency and Opportunity: A Theory of Delinquent Gangs. Free Press.
· Cullen, Francis T. 1988. “Were Cloward and Ohlin Strain Theorists? Delinquency and Opportunity Revisited”. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 25.3: 214-241.
· Hagedorn, John M. 1998. “Gang Violence in the Postindustrial Era”. Crime and Justice 24: 365-419.
· Anderson, Elijah. (1999). Code of the Street: Decency, Violence, and the Moral Life of the Inner City. W.W. Norton and Company.
· Campbell, Anne. 1987. “Self Definition by Rejection: The Case of Gang Girls”. Social Problems 34.5: 451-466.
· Joe, Karen A. and Meda Chesney-Lind. 1995. “’Just Every Mother’s Angel’: An Analysis of Gender and Ethnic Variations in Youth Gang Membership”. Gender and Society 9.4: 408-431.
· Laidler, Karen Joe and Geoffrey Hunt. 2001. “Accomplishing Femininity Among the Girls in the Gang”. British Journal of Criminology 41: 656-678.
· Miller, Jody. 2001. One of the Guys: Girls, Gangs, and Gender. Oxford University Press.
· McGloin, Jean Marie, Christopher J. Schrek, Eric A. Stewart and Graham C. Ousey. 2011. “Predicting the Violent Offender: The Discriminant Validity of the Subculture of Violence”. Criminology 49.3: 767-794.
· Miller, Walter B. 1958. “Lower Class Culture as a Generating Milieu of Gang Delinquency”. Journal of Social Issues 14.3: 5-19.
· Smith, Chris M. 2014. “The Influence of Gentrification on Gang Homicides in Chicago Neighborhoods, 1994 to 2005”. Crime and Delinquency 60.4: 569-591.
· Papachristos, Andrew V. 2013. “The Importance of Cohesion for Gang Research, Policy, and Practice”. Criminology and Public Policy 12.1: 49-58.
· Papachristos, Andrew V., David M. Hureau, and Anthony A. Braga. 2013. “The Corner and the Crew: The Influence of Geography and Social Networks on Gang Violence”. American Sociological Review 78.3: 417-447.
Differential Association/Social Learning
· Sykes, Gresham M. and David Matza. 1957. “Techniques of Neutralization”. In Classics of Criminology (pp.295-298), edited by Joseph E. Jacoby, Theresa A. Severance, and Alan S. Bruce. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
· Sutherland, Edwin H. 1947. “Differential Association”. In Classics of Criminology (pp.299-301), edited by Joseph E. Jacoby, Theresa A. Severance, and Alan S. Bruce. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
· Piquero, Nicole Leeper, Stephen G. Tibbetts and Michael B. Blankenship (2005) “Examining the role of differential association and techniques of neutralization in explaining corporate crime” Deviant Behavior, 26:2, 159-188.
· Sellers, Christine S. and Thomas Winfree. 2010. “Ackers, Ronald L.: Social Learning Theory” In Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory (pp.21-29), edited by Francis T. Cullen and Pamela Wilcox. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
· Powers RA, Cochran JK, Maskaly J, Sellers CS. Social Learning Theory, Gender, and Intimate Partner Violent Victimization: A Structural Equations Approach. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 2020;35(17-18):3554-3580.
· Sykes, Gresham M. and David Matza. 1957. “Techniques of Neutralization: A Theory of Delinquency”. American Sociological Review 22.6: 664-670.
· Burgess, Robert L. and Ronald L. Akers. 1966. “A Differential Association-Reinforcement Theory of Criminal Behavior”. Social Problems 14.2: 128-147.
· Akers, Ronald L. 1990. “Rational Choice, Deterrence, and Social Learning Theory in Criminology: The Path Not Taken”. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 81.3: 653-676.
· Akers, Ronald L. 2009. Social Learning and Social Structure: A General Theory of Crime and Deviance. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
· Matsueda, Ross L. 1982. “Testing Control Theory and Differential Association: A Causal Modeling Approach”. American Sociological Review 47: 489-504.
· Matsueda, Ross L. 1988. “The Current State of Differential Association Theory”. Crime and Delinquency 34.3: 277-306.
· Akers, Ronald L. and Gary F. Jensen. 2009. “The Empirical Status of Social Learning Theory of Crime and Deviance: The Past, Present, and Future”. In Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory (pp.37-76), edited by Francis T. Cullen, John Paul Wright, and Kristie R. Blevins. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
· Heimer, Karen. 1997. “Socioeconomic Status, Subcultural Definitions, and Violent Delinquency”. Social Forces 75.3: 799-833.
· Hoffmann, John P. 2003. “A Contextual Analysis of Differential Association, Social Control, and Strain Theories of Delinquency”. Social Forces 81.3: 753-785.
· Piquero, Nicole Leeper, Angela R. Gover, John M. MacDonald, and Alex R. Piquero. 2005. “The Influence of Delinquent Peers on Delinquency: Does Gender Matter?”. Youth and Society 36.3: 251-275.
· Haynie, Dana L. and D. Wayne Osgood. 2005. “Reconsidering Peers and Delinquency: How do Peers Matter?”. Social Forces 84.3: 1109-1130.
· Pratt, Travis C., Francis T. Cullen, Christine S. Sellers, L. Thomas Winfree Jr., Leah E. Daigle, Noelle E. Fearn, and Jancinta M. Gau. 2010. “The Empirical Status of Social Learning Theory: A Meta-Analysis”. Justice Quarterly, 27.6: 765-802.
· Matsueda, Ross L. and Karen Heimer. 1987. “Race, Family Structure and Delinquency: A Test of Differential Association and Social Control Theories”. American Sociological Review 52.6: 826-840.
· Matsueda, Ross L. and Kathleen Anderson. 1998. “The Dynamics of Delinquent Peers and Delinquent Behavior”. Criminology 36.2: 269-308.
· McCarthy, Bill, Diane Felmlee, and John Hagan. 2004. “Girl Friends are Better: Gender, Friends, and Crime among School and Street Youth”. Criminology 42.4: 805-836.
· Haynie, Dana L., Nathan J. Doogan, and Brian Soller. 2014. “Gender, Friendship Networks, and Delinquency: A Dynamic Network Approach”. Criminology 52.4: 688-722.
· Haynie, Dana L., Eric Silver, and Brent Teasdale. 2006. “Neighborhood Characteristics, Peer Networks, and Adolescent Violence”. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 22: 147-169.