Select a work of art from any of the chapters in our textbook, and write a response that analyzes the art through the lens of a descriptive critic, an interpretive critic, and an evaluative critic. What different things would these critics have to say? Use the following guidelines:
. 1 full page
. Minimum of 2 sources cited (assigned readings/online lessons and an outside source)
. APA format for in-text citations and list of references
THE HUMANITIES THROUGH THE ARTS
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THE HUMANITIES THROUGH THE ARTS
N i n t h E d i t i o n
F. David Martin Professor of Philosophy Emeritus
Lee A. Jacobus Professor of English Emeritus
University of Connecticut
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THE HUMANITIES THROUGH THE ARTS, NINTH EDITION
Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2015 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2011, 2008, and 2004. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.
Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
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ISBN 978-0-07-352398-9 MHID 0-07-352398-4
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Martin, F. David, 1920– author. The humanities through the arts / F. David Martin, Bucknell University; Lee A. Jacobus, University of Connecticut–Storrs.—Ninth Edition. pages cm Includes index. ISBN 978–0–07–352398–9 — ISBN 0–07–352398–4 (hard : alk. paper) 1. Arts–Psychological aspects. 2. Art appreciation. I. Jacobus, Lee A., author. II. Title. NX165.M37 2014 700.1’04–dc23 2013041627
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ABOUT THE AUTHORS
F. David Martin (PhD, University of Chicago) taught at the University of Chicago and then at Bucknell University until his retirement in 1983. He was a Fulbright Research Scholar in Florence and Rome from 1957 through 1959, and he has received seven other major research grants during his career as well as the Christian Lindback Award for Distinguished Teaching. In addition to more than 100 articles in professional journals, Dr. Martin is the author of Art and the Religious Experience (Associated University Presses, 1972); Sculpture and the Enlivened Space (The University Press of Kentucky, 1981); and Facing Death: Theme and Variations (Associated University Presses, 2006).
Lee A. Jacobus (PhD, Claremont Graduate University) taught at Western Connecticut University and then at the University of Connecticut (Storrs) until he retired in 2001. He held a Danforth Teachers Grant while earning his doctorate. His publications include Hawaiian Tales (Tell Me Press, 2014); Substance, Style and Strategy (Oxford University Press, 1999); Shakespeare and the Dialectic of Certainty (St. Martin’s Press, 1992); Sudden Apprehension: Aspects of Knowledge in Paradise Lost (Mouton, 1976); John Cleveland: A Critical Study (G. K. Hall, 1975); and Aesthetics and the Arts (McGraw-Hill, 1968). Dr. Jacobus writes poetry, drama, and fi ction. He is the editor of The Bedford Introduction to Drama (Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2013). His A World of Ideas (Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2013) is in its ninth edition.
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We dedicate this study to teachers and students of the humanities.
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Part 1 FUNDAMENTALS
1 The Humanities: An Introduction 1 2 What Is a Work of Art? 18
3 Being a Critic of the Arts 47
Part 2 THE ARTS
4 Painting 63 5 Sculpture 95
6 Architecture 126 7 Literature 171 8 Theater 199 9 Music 225
10 Dance 256 11 Photography 278
12 Cinema 304 13 Television and Video Art 333
Part 3 INTERRELATIONSHIPS
14 Is It Art or Something Like It? 352 15 The Interrelationships of the Arts 379
16 The Interrelationships of the Humanities 400 GLOSSARY G-1
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Part 1 FUNDAMENTALS
1 Th e Humanities: An Introduction 1
The Humanities: A Study of Values 1 Taste 4 Responses to Art 4 Structure and Artistic Form 9
EXPERIENCING: The Mona Lisa 10
Abstract Ideas and Concrete Images 13 Summary 16
2 What Is a Work of Art? 18 Identifying Art Conceptually 19 Identifying Art Perceptually 19 Artistic Form 20 Participation 24 Participation and Artistic Form 26 Content 27 Subject Matter 29 Subject Matter and Artistic Form 30 Participation, Artistic Form, and Content 30 Artistic Form: Examples 32
Subject Matter and Content 38
EXPERIENCING: Interpretations of the Female Nude 44
Further Thoughts on Artistic Form 44 Summary 45
3 Being a Critic of the Arts 47 You Are Already an Art Critic 47 Participation and Criticism 48 Three Kinds of Criticism 48 Descriptive Criticism 49
Interpretive Criticism 53
Evaluative Criticism 56
EXPERIENCING: The Polish Rider 60 Summary 61
Part 2 THE ARTS
4 Painting 63 Our Visual Powers 63 The Media of Painting 64 Tempera 64
Other Media and Mixed Media 70
Elements of Painting 72 Line 73
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6 Architecture 126 Centered Space 126 Space and Architecture 127 Chartres 128 Living Space 131 Four Necessities of Architecture 132 Technical Requirements of Architecture 132
Functional Requirements of Architecture 133
Spatial Requirements of Architecture 137
Revelatory Requirements of Architecture 137
Earth-Rooted Architecture 139 Site 140
Raw Materials 142
Sky-Oriented Architecture 145 Axis Mundi 148 Defi ance of Gravity 149
Integration of Light 150
Earth-Resting Architecture 151 Earth-Dominating Architecture 153 Combinations of Types 154 Guggenheim Museum Bilbao and Sydney Opera House 155
High-Rises and Skyscrapers 157
EXPERIENCING: Sydney Opera House 158
FOCUS ON: Fantasy Architecture 163
Urban Planning 166 Summary 170
7 Literature 171 Spoken Language and Literature 171 Literary Structures 174 The Narrative and the Narrator 174
The Episodic Narrative 176
The Organic Narrative 179
The Quest Narrative 182
The Lyric 184
EXPERIENCING: “Musée des Beaux Arts” 187
Literary Details 188 Image 189
The Clarity of Painting 80 The “All-at-Onceness” of Painting 81 Abstract Painting 81 Intensity and Restfulness in
Abstract Painting 83 Representational Painting 84 Comparison of Five Impressionist Paintings 84
FOCUS ON: The Self-Portrait: Rembrandt van Rijn, Gustave Courbet, Vincent van Gogh, and Frida Kahlo 90
Frames 92 Some Painting Styles of the Past 150 Years 92
EXPERIENCING: Frames 93 Summary 94
5 Sculpture 95 Sensory Interconnections 96 Sculpture and Painting Compared 96 Sculpture and Space 98 Sunken-Relief Sculpture 98 Low-Relief Sculpture 99 High-Relief Sculpture 100 Sculpture in the Round 101 Sculpture and Architecture Compared 103 Sensory Space 104 Sculpture and the Human Body 105 Sculpture in the Round and the
Human Body 106 EXPERIENCING: Sculpture and Physical Size 108
Contemporary Sculpture 109 Truth to Materials 109 Protest against Technology 112 Accommodation with Technology 115 Machine Sculpture 116 Earth Sculpture 117
FOCUS ON: African Sculpture 119
Sculpture in Public Places 122 Summary 125
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Tonal Center 235 Musical Structures 237 Theme and Variations 237
Sonata Form 238
FOCUS ON: Beethoven’s Symphony in E♭ Major, No. 3, Eroica 245
Blues and Jazz: Popular American Music 250 Blues and Rock and Roll 252 Summary 254
10 Dance 256 Subject Matter of Dance 256
EXPERIENCING: Feeling and Dance 258
Form 259 Dance and Ritual 259 Ritual Dance 261
Social Dance 261
The Court Dance 262
Ballet 262 Swan Lake 264
Modern Dance 267 Alvin Ailey’s Revelations 269 Martha Graham 271
Pilobolus and Momix Dance Companies 272
Mark Morris Dance Group 273
FOCUS ON: Theater Dance 275
Popular Dance 276 Summary 277
11 Photography 278 Photography and Painting 278
EXPERIENCING: Photography and Art 282
Photography and Painting: The Pictorialists 283
Straight Photography 286 Stieglitz: Pioneer of Straight Photography 287
Diction 196 Summary 198
8 Th eater 199 Aristotle and the Elements of Drama 200 Dialogue and Soliloquy 201
Archetypal Patterns 203 Genres of Drama: Tragedy 205 The Tragic Stage 205
Stage Scenery and Costumes 207
Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet 209
Comedy: Old and New 212 Tragicomedy: The Mixed Genre 215 A Play for Study: The Swan Song 215
EXPERIENCING: Anton Chekhov’s The Swan Song 219
FOCUS ON: Musical Theater 220
Experimental Drama 223 Summary 224
9 Music 225 Hearing and Listening 225 The Elements of Music 226 Tone 226
Melodic Material: Melody, Theme, and Motive 228
EXPERIENCING: “Battle Hymn of the Republic” 230
The Subject Matter of Music 231 Feelings 232
Two Theories: Formalism and Expressionism 234 Sound 234
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Part 3 INTERRELATIONSHIPS
14 Is It Art or Something Like It? 352
Art and Artlike 352 Illustration 355 Realism 355
Folk Art 356
Popular Art 358
EXPERIENCING: Propaganda Art 364
FOCUS ON: Kitsch 364
Decoration 366 Idea Art 369 Dada 369
Duchamp and His Legacy 371
Conceptual Art 372
Performance Art 374 Shock Art 375 Virtual Art 376 Summary 378
15 Th e Interrelationships of the Arts 379
Appropriation 379 Synthesis 381 Interpretation 382 Film Interprets Literature: Howards End 382 Music Interprets Drama: The Marriage of Figaro 385 Poetry Interprets Painting: The Starry Night 388 Sculpture Interprets Poetry: Apollo and Daphne 390
EXPERIENCING: Bernini’s Apollo and Daphne and Ovid’s The Metamorphoses 392
FOCUS ON: Photography Interprets Fiction 393
Architecture Interprets Dance: National Nederlanden Building 395
Painting Interprets Dance and Music: The Dance and Music 396
EXPERIENCING: Death in Venice: Three Versions 398 Summary 399
The f/64 Group 288
The Documentarists 290 The Modern Eye 296
FOCUS ON: Digital Photography 300 Summary 303
12 Cinema 304 The Subject Matter of Film 304 Directing and Editing 305 The Participative Experience and Film 308 The Film Image 309
EXPERIENCING: Still Frames and Photography 310
Camera Point of View 312 Violence and Film 315 Sound 316 Image and Action 318 Film Structure 319 Cinematic Signifi cance 321 The Context of Film History 322 Francis Ford Coppola’s The Godfather 323 The Narrative Structure of The Godfather Films 324 Coppola’s Images 325
Coppola’s Use of Sound 326
The Power of The Godfather 326
FOCUS ON: Alfred Hitchcock’s Vertigo 327
Experimentation 330 Summary 332
13 Television and Video Art 333 The Evolution of Television 333 The Subject Matter of Television and Video
Art 334 Commercial Television 335 The Television Series 336
The Structure of the Self-Contained Episode 337
The Television Serial 337
Video Art 342 FOCUS ON: Downton Abbey 343
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FOCUS ON: The Arts and History, The Arts and Philosophy, The Arts and Theology 406
16 Th e Interrelationships of the Humanities 400
The Humanities and the Sciences 400 The Arts and the Other Humanities 401
EXPERIENCING: The Humanities and Students of Medicine 402
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The Humanities through the Arts , ninth edition, explores the humanities with an emphasis on the arts. Examining the relationship of the humanities to values, ob- jects, and events important to people is central to this book. We make a distinction between artists and other humanists: Artists reveal values, while other humanists examine or refl ect on values. We study how values are revealed in the arts, while keeping in mind a basic question: “What is Art?” Judging by the existence of an- cient artifacts, we see that artistic expression is one of the most fundamental human activities. It binds us together as a people by revealing the most important values of our culture. Our genre-based approach offers students the opportunity to understand the relation of the arts to human values by examining in-depth each of the major artis- tic media. Subject matter, form, and content in each of the arts supply the frame- work for careful analysis. Painting and photography focus our eyes on the visual appearance of things. Sculpture reveals the textures, densities, and shapes of things. Architecture sharpens our perception of spatial relationships, both inside and out. Literature, theater, cinema, and video make us more aware of the human condition, among other ideas. Our understanding of feelings is deepened by music. Our sensi- tivity to movement, especially of the human body, is enhanced by dance. The wide range of opportunities for criticism and analysis helps the reader synthesize the complexities of the arts and their interaction with values of many kinds. All of this is achieved with an exceptionally vivid and complete illustration program alongside detailed discussion and interactive responses to the problems inherent in a close study of the arts and values of our time. Four major pedagogical boxed features enhance student understanding of the genres and of individual works within the genres: Perception Key boxes, Concep- tion Key boxes, Experiencing boxes, and new Focus On boxes (the latter described in detail in the “Key Changes in the Ninth Edition” section of this Preface):
• The Perception Key boxes are designed to sharpen readers in their responses to the arts. These boxes raise important questions about specifi c works of art in a way that respects the complexities of the works and of our responses to them. The questions raised are usually open-ended and thereby avoid any doctrinaire views or dogmatic opinions. The emphasis is on perception and awareness, and how a heightened awareness will produce a fuller and more meaningful under- standing of the work at hand. In a few cases our own interpretations and analyses
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follow the keys, and are offered not as the way to perceive a given work of art but, rather, as one possible way. Our primary interest is in exciting our readers to perceive the splendid singularity of the work of art in question.
• We use Conception Key boxes, rather than Perception Key boxes, in certain instances throughout the book where we focus on thought and conception rather than observation and perception. Again, these are open-ended questions that involve refl ection and understanding. There is no single way of responding to these keys, just as there is no simple way to answer the questions.
PERCEPTION KEY Public Sculpture 1. Public sculpture such as that by Maya Lin, Richard Serra, and Judy Chicago usually
produces tremendous controversy when it is not representative, such as a conven- tional statue of a man on a horse, a hero holding a rifl e and fl ag, or person of local fame. What do you think causes these more abstract works to attract controversy? Do you react negatively or positively to any of these three works?
2. Should artists who plan public sculpture meant to be viewed by a wide-ranging audience aim at pleasing that audience? Should that be their primary mission, or should they simply make the best work they are capable of ?
3. Which of the three, Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Sequence, or The Dinner Party, seems least like a work of art to you? Try to convince someone who disagrees with you that it is not a work of art.
4. Choose a public sculpture that is in your community, photograph it, and establish its credentials, as best you can, for making a claim to being an important work of art.
5. If we label Chicago’s The Dinner Party a feminist work, is it then to be treated as political sculpture? Do you think Lin’s Vietnam Veterans Memorial is a less political or more political sculpture than Chicago’s work? Could Serra’s Sequence be consid-
mar23984_ch05_095-125.indd 124 22/01/14 5:54 PMCONCEPTION KEY Archetypes 1. You may wish to supplement the comments above by reading the third chapter of
Northrop Frye’s Anatomy of Criticism or the Hamlet chapter in Francis Fergusson’s The Idea of a Theater.
2. Whether or not you do additional reading, consider the recurrent patterns you have observed in dramas—include television dramas or television adaptations of drama. Can you fi nd any of the patterns we have described? Do you see other patterns showing up? Do the patterns you have observed seem basic to human experience? For example, do you associate gaiety with spring, love with summer, death with fall, and bitterness with winter? What season seems most appropriate
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• Each chapter provides an Experiencing box that gives the reader the opportu- nity to approach a specifi c work of art in more detail than the Perception Key boxes. Analysis of the work begins by answering a few preliminary questions to make it accessible to students. Follow-up questions ask students to think criti- cally about the work and guide them to their own interpretations. In every case
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we raise major issues concerning the genre of work, the background of the work, and the artistic issues that make the work demanding and important.
EXPERIENCING Sydney Opera House 1. Would you recognize the function of
the building if you did not know its name?
2. Which type does this building ful- fi ll, earth-resting, earth-rooted, or sky-oriented?
In the late 1950s the design was a sensation in part because no one could know by looking at it that it was a concert and opera hall. Its swooping “sails” were so novel that people were more amazed at its construction than by its function. Additionally, the fact that the build- ing was fl oating in a harbor rather than being built on solid earth was all the more mystifying. Today, however, with the innovations of computer-generated plans for buildings like Gehry’s Guggenheim in Bilbao (Figures 6-24 to 6-26), we are accustomed to the extraordinary shapes that make these buildings possible. In fact, now we are likely to associate the shape of the Sydney Opera House (Figure 6-27) with a function related to the arts. This tells us that our percep- tion of function in a building is established by tradition and our association with a class of buildings. Therefore, the dogma that was so fi rmly established years ago—“form follows function”—is capable of distinct revision.
FIGURE 6-27 Jørn Utzon, Opera House, Sydney, Australia. 1973.
This is considered an expressionist modern design. The precast concrete shells house various concert and performance halls.
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This edition, as with previous editions, is organized into three parts, offering considerable fl exibility in the classroom: Part 1, “Fundamentals,” includes the fi rst three introductory chapters. In Chapter 1, The Humanities: An Introduction , we distinguish the humanities from the sciences, and the arts from other humanities. In Chapter 2, What Is a Work of Art? , we raise the question of defi nition in art and the ways in which we distinguish art from other objects and experiences. Chapter 3, Being a Critic of the Arts , introduces the vital role of criticism in art appreciation and evaluation. Part 2, “The Arts,” includes individual chapters on each of the basic arts. The structure of this section permits complete fl exibility: The chapters may be used in their present order or in any order one wishes. We begin with individual chapters on Painting , Sculpture , and Architecture , follow with Literature , Theater , Music , and Dance , and continue with Photography , Cinema , and Television and Video Art . Instruc- tors may reorder or omit chapters as needed. The Photography chapter now more logically precedes the Cinema and Television and Video Art chapters for the conve- nience of instructors who prefer to teach the chapters in the order presented.
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Part 3, “Interrelationships,” begins with Chapter 14, Is It Art or Something Like It? We study illustration, folk art, propaganda, and kitsch while raising the ques- tion “What is Art?” We also examine the avant-garde as it pushes us to the edge of defi nition. Chapter 15, The Interrelationships of the Arts , explores the ways in which the arts work together, as in how literature and music result in a Mozart opera; how poetry inspires a Bernini sculpture; and how a van Gogh painting inspires poetry and song. Chapter 16, The Interrelationships of the Humanities , addresses the ways in which the arts impact the other humanities, particularly history, philosophy, and theology.
Key Changes in the Ninth Edition
• New “Focus On” boxes. In each chapter of “The Arts” and “Interrelationships” sections of the book, we include a Focus On box, which provides an opportunity to deal in-depth with a group of artworks as a way of exploring art in context with similar works. For example, we focus on African sculpture, fantasy architecture, self-portraits, kitsch, and other topics via a variety of examples. In the Cinema and Television and Video Art chapters, we focus in-depth on specifi c works (Alfred Hitchcock’s Vertigo and the popular PBS drama Downton Abbey, respectively) from a variety of perspectives. Each of these opportunities encourages in-depth and comparative study.
FOCUS ON Downton Abbey By 2013, in its third season, the British serial drama Down- ton Abbey (PBS) became one of the most watched television programs in the world. Almost the diametrical opposite of The Sopranos and The Wire, it presents a historical period in England in which the language is formal by comparison and the manners impeccable. What we see is the upheaval of the lives of the British aristocracy in the wake of historical forces that cannot be ignored or stemmed. The fi rst season began with a major historical event, the sinking of the Titanic in 1912. With the ship went Patrick Crawley, the young heir to Downton Abbey. The result is that, much to the dismay of the Dowager Countess Vio- let Crawley (Figure 13-8), the great house will now go to the Earl of Grantham’s distant cousin, Matthew Crawley, a person unknown to the family. Young Matthew enters as a middle-class solicitor (lawyer) with little interest in the ways of the aristocracy. But soon he fi nds himself in love with his distant cousin, Lady Mary Crawley, beginning a long and complicated love interest that becomes one of the major centers of the drama for three seasons. Lord Grantham and his wife Cora, Countess of Grantham, have three daughters (Figure 13-9), and therefore the question of marriage is as im- portant in this drama as in any Jane Austen novel. The fate of Downton Abbey itself is a major center of interest in the drama—not only because of the question of who is to inherit and live in the great house, but also because in season 3 Lord Grantham announces that, as a result of bad investments, he has lost
FIGURE 13-8 Maggie Smith as Violet Crawley in Downton Abbey. She is the Dowager Countess of Grantham and the series’ most stalwart character in her resistance to change. She has been a scene-stealer since season 1.
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• Updated illustration program and contextual discussions. More than 30 per- cent of the images in this edition are new or have been updated to include fresh classic and contemporary works. New discussions of these works appear near the illustrations. The 200-plus images throughout the book have been carefully chosen and reproduced in full color when possible, resulting in a beautifully illustrated text. Newly-added visual artists represented include painters Lee Krasner, Frida Kahlo, and Gustave Courbet; sculptors Ron Mueck, Frank Stella, and Jeff Koons; photographers Edward Steichen, Cindy Sherman, and Lewis Hine; and video artist Janine Antoni. Newly-added fi lm and television stills rep- resent Alfred Hitchcock’s Vertigo , James Cameron’s Avatar, Quentin Taranti- no’s Django Unchained , the PBS series Downton Abbey , and more.
• New literature, dance, theater, and music coverage. Along with the many new illustrations and contextual discussions of the visual arts, fi lm, and televi- sion, new works and images in the literary, dance, theatrical, and musical arts have been added and contextualized. These include works by Edgar Lee Masters, Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, Anton Chekhov, John Milton, Gerard Manley Hopkins, Sarah Norcliffe Cleghorn, Samuel Beckett, Steven Sondheim, Mark Morris, Joseph Haydn, and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The theater chapter also includes a new section on stage scenery and costumes.
• Increased focus on non-Western art. This edition contains numerous new examples of non-Western art, from painting (Wang Yuanqi’s Landscape after Wu Zhen ) to sculpture (Focus On: African Sculpture) to architecture (the Guangzhou Opera House) to dance (the Nrityagram Dance Ensemble) to fi lm (Yasujiro− Ozu’s Tokyo Story ).
• Additional references to online videos. Since many opportunities exist for ex- periencing the performing arts online, we point to numerous online videos that can help expand our understanding of specifi c works of art. Virtually all the arts have some useful illustrations online that become more intelligible as a result of our discussion of the medium or the specifi c work of art.
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